:: Partial Differentiation of Vector-Valued Functions on $n$-Dimensional Real
:: Normed Linear Spaces
:: by Takao Inou\'e , Adam Naumowicz , Noboru Endou and Yasunari Shidama
::
:: Received April 22, 2010
:: Copyright (c) 2010 Association of Mizar Users
environ
vocabularies PRE_TOPC, RLVECT_1, FUNCT_1, ARYTM_3, ARYTM_1, FINSEQ_1,
FINSEQ_2, FCONT_1, XXREAL_2, FINSET_1, MEMBERED, RVSUM_1, RELAT_1,
COMPLEX1, SQUARE_1, ORDINAL2, RCOMP_1, XBOOLE_0, PARTFUN1, NORMSP_1,
NORMSP_2, XXREAL_1, ORDINAL4, MONOID_0, LOPBAN_1, FDIFF_1, PDIFF_1,
REAL_NS1, BORSUK_1, FUNCT_2, EUCLID, AFINSQ_1, XREAL_0, NUMBERS,
STRUCT_0, EUCLID_7, CFCONT_1, RFINSEQ, FUNCT_4, VALUED_0, ORDINAL1,
REAL_1, SUBSET_1, CARD_1, TARSKI, XXREAL_0, CARD_3, NAT_1, VALUED_1,
RFINSEQ2, SUPINF_2, FINSEQ_5, SEQ_4, VALUED_2;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1, RELSET_1,
PARTFUN1, FUNCT_2, FINSET_1, NUMBERS, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, REAL_1,
SQUARE_1, NAT_1, MEMBERED, VALUED_0, COMPLEX1, NAT_D, BINOP_2, XXREAL_2,
FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, SEQ_1, FINSEQOP, RVSUM_1, RFINSEQ, RCOMP_1, FCONT_1,
VALUED_1, VALUED_2, FDIFF_1, FINSEQ_5, FUNCT_7, FINSEQ_7, STRUCT_0,
NORMSP_0, PRE_TOPC, RLVECT_1, SEQ_4, NORMSP_1, EUCLID, LOPBAN_1,
RFINSEQ2, NFCONT_1, NDIFF_1, REAL_NS1, NORMSP_2, PDIFF_1, EUCLID_7,
INTEGR15, PDIFF_6;
constructors REAL_1, SQUARE_1, RSSPACE3, FINSEQOP, NORMSP_2, FCONT_1,
FINSEQ_7, NFCONT_1, FDIFF_1, NDIFF_1, SEQ_1, PDIFF_1, BINOP_2, PCOMPS_1,
MONOID_0, INTEGR15, RELSET_1, RFINSEQ, NAT_D, EUCLID_7, FINSEQ_5,
PDIFF_6, SEQ_4, RFINSEQ2, VALUED_2;
registrations XBOOLE_0, FUNCT_1, RELSET_1, FUNCT_2, NUMBERS, XCMPLX_0,
XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, NAT_1, MEMBERED, VALUED_0, XXREAL_2, FINSEQ_1,
FINSEQ_2, FINSEQ_5, RCOMP_1, STRUCT_0, MONOID_0, EUCLID, LOPBAN_1,
REAL_NS1, PDIFF_6, VALUED_1, VALUED_2;
requirements SUBSET, REAL, BOOLE, NUMERALS, ARITHM;
definitions TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, FINSEQ_1, VALUED_1, RCOMP_1, NORMSP_0, PCOMPS_1,
EUCLID, LOPBAN_1, NORMSP_2, PDIFF_1, EUCLID_7, SQUARE_1, FINSEQ_2;
theorems TARSKI, ABSVALUE, XBOOLE_0, XBOOLE_1, XREAL_0, EUCLID, XREAL_1,
COMPLEX1, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, FINSEQ_3, RFINSEQ, ORDINAL1, NAT_1, NAT_D,
FINSET_1, NORMSP_2, XXREAL_0, FUNCT_7, FINSEQ_7, RVSUM_1, RELAT_1,
FUNCT_1, FUNCT_2, FUNCT_3, SQUARE_1, INTEGR15, EUCLID_7, FINSEQ_4,
FINSEQ_5, NORMSP_1, LOPBAN_1, PARTFUN1, PARTFUN2, NFCONT_1, FDIFF_1,
NDIFF_1, REAL_NS1, VALUED_1, PDIFF_1, FCONT_1, TOPREAL7, XXREAL_2,
XCMPLX_1, ROLLE, EUCLIDLP, EUCLID_4, XXREAL_1, TOPREAL9, INTEGRA5,
PDIFF_6, SEQ_4, RFINSEQ2, POLYNOM5, FUNCOP_1, GRCAT_1, TOPREALC,
VALUED_2;
schemes SEQ_1, FUNCT_2, NAT_1, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, PARTFUN1;
begin
:: Some properties of partial differentiation
:: of PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n
reserve n,m for non empty Element of NAT;
reserve i,j for Element of NAT;
reserve f for PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n;
reserve g for PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n;
reserve h for PartFunc of REAL m,REAL;
reserve x for Point of REAL-NS m;
reserve y for Element of REAL m;
reserve X for set;
Lm1:
for S be RealNormSpace, x be Point of S, N1,N2 be Neighbourhood of x holds
N1/\ N2 is Neighbourhood of x
proof
let S be RealNormSpace,
x be Point of S,
N1,N2 be Neighbourhood of x;
consider N be Neighbourhood of x such that
A1: N c= N1 & N c= N2 by NDIFF_1:1;
A2: N c= N1/\ N2 by A1,XBOOLE_1:19;
consider g be Real such that
A3: 0 j implies ((0*j) /^ i) = 0*((j-'i))
proof
assume A1: i > j;
then A2:i > len(0*j) by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
0 > j-i by A1, XREAL_1:51;
then A3:j-'i = 0 by XREAL_0:def 2;
(0*j) /^ i = 0 by A2,RFINSEQ:def 2;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
theorem Th3:
((0*j) /^ i) = 0*((j-'i))
proof
per cases;
suppose i <= j;
hence thesis by Lm3;
end;
suppose i > j;
hence thesis by Lm4;
end;
end;
theorem
(i <= j implies ((0*j) | (i-'1)) = 0*((i-'1))) & ((0*j) /^ i) = 0*((j-'i))
by Th2, Th3;
theorem Th5:
for xi be Element of REAL-NS 1 st 1 <= i & i <= j holds
||. reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS j)).xi .|| = ||. xi .||
proof
let xi be Element of REAL-NS 1;
assume A1: 1 <= i & i <= j;
consider q being Element of REAL, y being Element of REAL j such that
A2: xi = <*q*> & y = 0.(REAL-NS j)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS j)).xi = reproj(i,y).q by PDIFF_1:def 6;
A3:reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS j)).xi = Replace(y,i,q) by A2,PDIFF_1:def 5;
len y = j by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS j)).xi = (y| (i-'1))^<*q*>^(y /^ i)
by A1,A3,FINSEQ_7:def 1;
then A4: ||. reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS j)).xi .|| = |. ( y| (i-'1))^<*q*>^(y/^i) .|
by A2,REAL_NS1:1;
y| (i-'1) = (0*j) | (i-'1) by A2,REAL_NS1:def 4;
then sqrt Sum sqr(y| (i-'1)) = |. 0*(i-'1) .| by A1,Th2;
then sqrt Sum sqr(y| (i-'1)) = 0 by EUCLID:10;
then A5:Sum sqr(y| (i-'1)) = 0 by SQUARE_1:92,RVSUM_1:116;
y/^i = (0*j)/^i by A2,REAL_NS1:def 4;
then sqrt Sum sqr(y/^i) = |. 0*(j-'i) .| by Th3;
then A6:sqrt Sum sqr(y/^i) = 0 by EUCLID:10;
sqr((y| (i-'1))^<*q*>^(y/^i))
= sqr((y| (i-'1))^<*q*>)^sqr(y/^i) by TOPREAL7:11
.= sqr(y| (i-'1))^sqr<*q*>^sqr(y/^i) by TOPREAL7:11
.= sqr(y| (i-'1))^<*q^2*>^sqr(y/^i) by RVSUM_1:81;
then Sum sqr((y| (i-'1))^<*q*>^(y/^i))
= Sum(sqr(y| (i-'1))^<*q^2*>) + Sum sqr(y/^i) by RVSUM_1:105
.= Sum sqr(y| (i-'1)) + q^2 + Sum sqr(y/^i) by RVSUM_1:104
.= q^2 by A5,A6,SQUARE_1:92,RVSUM_1:116;
then A7: ||. reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS j)).xi .|| = |. q .| by A4,COMPLEX1:158;
proj(1,1).<*q*> = q by PDIFF_1:1;
hence thesis by A7,A2,PDIFF_1:4;
end;
theorem Th6:
for m,i be Element of NAT, x be Element of REAL m, r be Real holds
reproj(i,x).r - x = reproj(i,0*m).(r - proj(i,m).x) &
x - reproj(i,x).r = reproj(i,0*m).(proj(i,m).x - r)
proof
let m,i be Element of NAT, x be Element of REAL m, r be Real;
reconsider p = reproj(i,x).r - x as m-long FinSequence;
reconsider q = reproj(i,0*m).(r - proj(i,m).x) as m-long FinSequence
by FINSEQ_2:161;
reconsider s = x - reproj(i,x).r as m-long FinSequence;
reconsider t = reproj(i,0*m).(proj(i,m).x - r) as m-long FinSequence
by FINSEQ_2:161;
A1:dom p = Seg m & dom q = Seg m & dom s = Seg m & dom t = Seg m
& dom x = Seg m & dom 0*m = Seg m by FINSEQ_1:110;
reconsider x1 = x as Element of m-tuples_on REAL;
A2:reproj(i,x).r = Replace(x,i,r) by PDIFF_1:def 5;
reconsider y1 = reproj(i,x).r as Element of m-tuples_on REAL;
A3:len x = m & len 0*m = m by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A4:len Replace(x,i,r) = m by FINSEQ_7:7;
for k be Nat st k in dom p holds p.k = q.k
proof
let k be Nat;
assume A5: k in dom p;
then A6: 1 <= k & k <= m by A1,FINSEQ_1:3;
then k in dom (Replace(x,i,r)) by A4,FINSEQ_3:27;
then A7: Replace(x,i,r)/.k = Replace(x,i,r).k by PARTFUN1:def 8;
A8: p.k = y1.k - x1.k by RVSUM_1:48;
q = Replace(0*m,i,r - proj(i,m).x) by PDIFF_1:def 5;
then A9: q.k = Replace(0*m,i,r - proj(i,m).x)/.k by A5,A1,PARTFUN1:def 8;
per cases;
suppose A10: k = i;
then p.k = r - x1.k & q.k = r - proj(i,m).x
by A2,A3,A6,A7,A8,A9,FINSEQ_7:10;
hence p.k = q.k by A10,PDIFF_1:def 1;
end;
suppose k <> i;
then Replace(x,i,r).k = x1/.k & q.k = (0*m)/.k by A3,A6,A7,A9,FINSEQ_7:12;
then Replace(x,i,r).k = x1.k & q.k = (m |-> 0).k by A5,A1,PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence p.k = q.k by A2,A5,A1,A8,FINSEQ_2:71;
end;
end;
hence reproj(i,x).r - x = reproj(i,0*m).(r - proj(i,m).x) by A1,FINSEQ_1:17;
for k be Nat st k in dom s holds s.k = t.k
proof
let k be Nat;
assume A11: k in dom s;
then A12:1 <= k & k <= m by A1,FINSEQ_1:3;
then k in dom (Replace(x,i,r)) by A4,FINSEQ_3:27;
then A13:Replace(x,i,r)/.k = Replace(x,i,r).k by PARTFUN1:def 8;
A14: s.k = x1.k - y1.k by RVSUM_1:48;
t = Replace(0*m,i,proj(i,m).x - r) by PDIFF_1:def 5;
then A15:t.k = Replace(0*m,i,proj(i,m).x - r)/.k by A1,A11,PARTFUN1:def 8;
per cases;
suppose A16: k = i;
then s.k = x1.k - r & t.k = proj(i,m).x - r
by A2,A3,A12,A13,A14,A15,FINSEQ_7:10;
hence s.k = t.k by A16,PDIFF_1:def 1;
end;
suppose k <> i;
then Replace(x,i,r).k = x1/.k & t.k = (0*m)/.k
by A3,A12,A13,A15,FINSEQ_7:12;
then Replace(x,i,r).k = x1.k & t.k = (m |-> 0).k by A1,A11,PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence s.k = t.k by A2,A1,A11,A14,FINSEQ_2:71;
end;
end;
hence x - reproj(i,x).r = reproj(i,0*m).(proj(i,m).x - r) by A1,FINSEQ_1:17;
end;
theorem Th7:
for m,i be Element of NAT, x be Point of REAL-NS m,
p be Point of REAL-NS 1 holds
(reproj(i,x)).p - x = reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(p - Proj(i,m).x) &
x - (reproj(i,x)).p = reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(Proj(i,m).x - p)
proof
let m,i be Element of NAT,
x be Point of REAL-NS m, p be Point of REAL-NS 1;
consider p1 be Element of REAL, y be Element of REAL m such that
A1: p = <* p1 *> & y = x & (reproj(i,x)).p = reproj(i,y).p1 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
reconsider pm = p as Element of REAL 1 by REAL_NS1:def 4;
reconsider rm = reproj(i,y).p1 as Element of REAL m;
(reproj(i,x)).p - x = rm - y by A1,REAL_NS1:5;
then A2:(reproj(i,x)).p - x = reproj(i,0*m).(p1 - proj(i,m).y) by Th6;
A3:0*m = 0.(REAL-NS m) by REAL_NS1:def 4;
A4:<* proj(i,m).y *> = Proj(i,m).x by A1,PDIFF_1:def 4;
reconsider Pr = Proj(i,m).x as Element of REAL 1 by REAL_NS1:def 4;
consider r1 be Element of REAL, z be Element of REAL m such that
A5: p - Proj(i,m).x = <* r1 *> & z = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& (reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m))).(p - Proj(i,m).x) = reproj(i,z).r1
by PDIFF_1:def 6;
p - Proj(i,m).x = pm - Pr by REAL_NS1:5;
then p - Proj(i,m).x = <* p1 - proj(i,m).y *> by A1,A4,RVSUM_1:50;
hence (reproj(i,x)).p - x = reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(p - Proj(i,m).x)
by A2,A3,A5,FINSEQ_1:97;
x - (reproj(i,x)).p = y - rm by A1,REAL_NS1:5;
then A6:x - (reproj(i,x)).p = reproj(i,0*m).(proj(i,m).y - p1) by Th6;
consider r2 be Element of REAL, z be Element of REAL m such that
A7: Proj(i,m).x - p = <* r2 *> & z = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& (reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m))).(Proj(i,m).x - p) = reproj(i,z).r2
by PDIFF_1:def 6;
Proj(i,m).x - p = Pr - pm by REAL_NS1:5;
then Proj(i,m).x - p = <* proj(i,m).y - p1 *> by A1,A4,RVSUM_1:50;
hence x - (reproj(i,x)).p = reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(Proj(i,m).x - p)
by A3,A7,A6,FINSEQ_1:97;
end;
Lm5:
for m be Element of NAT, nx be Point of REAL-NS m, Z be Subset of REAL-NS m,
i be Element of NAT st Z is open & nx in Z & 1 <= i & i <= m holds
ex N be Neighbourhood of Proj(i,m).nx st
for z be Point of REAL-NS 1 st z in N holds (reproj(i,nx)).z in Z
proof
let m be Element of NAT,
nx be Point of REAL-NS m,
Z be Subset of REAL-NS m,
i be Element of NAT;
assume that
A1: Z is open and
A2: nx in Z and
A3: 1 <= i & i <= m;
consider r be Real such that
A4: 0 < r & {y where y is Point of REAL-NS m : ||. y - nx .|| < r} c= Z
by A1,A2,NDIFF_1:3;
set N = {y where y is Point of REAL-NS 1 : ||. y - Proj(i,m).nx .|| < r};
reconsider N as Neighbourhood of Proj(i,m).nx by A4,NFCONT_1:3;
take N;
let z be Point of REAL-NS 1;
assume z in N; then
A5: ex y be Point of REAL-NS 1 st y = z & ||. y - Proj(i,m).nx .|| < r;
||. (reproj(i,nx)).z - nx .||
= ||. reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(z - Proj(i,m).nx) .|| by Th7
.= ||. z - Proj(i,m).nx .|| by A3,Th5;
then (reproj(i,nx)).z
in {y where y is Point of REAL-NS m : ||. y - nx .|| < r} by A5;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
theorem Th8:
for m,n be non empty Element of NAT, i be Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n,
Z be Subset of REAL-NS m st Z is open & 1 <= i & i <= m holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i
iff
Z c=dom f &
for x be Point of REAL-NS m st x in Z holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i
proof
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT,
i be Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n,
Z be Subset of REAL-NS m;
assume that
A1: Z is open and
A2: 1 <= i & i <= m;
set S=REAL-NS 1;
set T=REAL-NS n;
set RNS= R_NormSpace_of_BoundedLinearOperators(S,T);
thus f is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i implies Z c=dom f &
for x be Point of REAL-NS m st x in Z holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i
proof
assume A3: f is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i;
hence A4: Z c=dom f by PDIFF_1:def 19;
let nx0 be Point of REAL-NS m;
reconsider x0=Proj(i,m).nx0 as Point of S;
assume A5: nx0 in Z;
then f|Z is_partial_differentiable_in nx0,i by A3,PDIFF_1:def 19;
then (f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0) is_differentiable_in x0 by PDIFF_1:def 9;
then consider N0 being Neighbourhood of x0 such that
A6: N0 c= dom((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0)) and
A7: ex L be Point of RNS,R be REST of S,T st
for x be Point of S st x in N0 holds
((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x-((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0
= L .( x-x0)+R/.(x-x0) by NDIFF_1:def 6;
consider L be Point of RNS,R be REST of S,T such that
A8: for x be Point of S st x in N0 holds
((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x - ((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0
= L.(x-x0) + R/.(x-x0) by A7;
consider N1 being Neighbourhood of x0 such that
A9: for x be Point of S st x in N1 holds
(reproj(i,nx0)).x in Z by A1,A2,A5,Lm5;
A10: now let x be Point of S;
assume x in N1;
then (reproj(i,nx0)).x in Z by A9;
then (reproj(i,nx0)).x in (dom f) /\ Z by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence (reproj(i,nx0)).x in dom(f|Z) by RELAT_1:90;
end;
reconsider N = N0 /\ N1 as Neighbourhood of x0 by Lm1;
(f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0) c= f*reproj(i,nx0) by RELAT_1:48,88;
then A11:dom((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0)) c= dom(f*reproj(i,nx0)) by RELAT_1:25;
N c= N0 by XBOOLE_1:17;
then N c= dom((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0)) by A6,XBOOLE_1:1;
then A12:N c= dom(f*reproj(i,nx0)) by A11,XBOOLE_1:1;
now let x be Point of S;
assume A13: x in N;
then A14: x in N0 by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
A15: dom(reproj(i,nx0)) = the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
x in N1 by XBOOLE_0:def 4,A13;
then A16:(reproj(i,nx0)).x in dom(f|Z) by A10;
then A17: (reproj(i,nx0)).x in dom f & (reproj(i,nx0)).x in Z by RELAT_1:86;
A18:(reproj(i,nx0)).x0 in dom(f|Z) by A10,NFCONT_1:4;
then A19: (reproj(i,nx0)).x0 in dom f & (reproj(i,nx0)).x0 in Z by RELAT_1:86;
A20: ((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x
=(f|Z)/. (reproj(i,nx0)/.x ) by A16,A15,PARTFUN2:9
.= f/. (reproj(i,nx0)/.x) by A17,PARTFUN2:35
.= (f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x by A15,A17,PARTFUN2:9;
((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0
=(f|Z)/. (reproj(i,nx0)/.x0 ) by A15,A18,PARTFUN2:9
.= f/. (reproj(i,nx0)/.x0) by A19,PARTFUN2:35
.= (f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0 by A15,A19,PARTFUN2:9;
hence (f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x-(f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0 =L.(x-x0)+R/.(x-x0)
by A8,A14,A20;
end;
then f*reproj(i,nx0) is_differentiable_in x0 by A12,NDIFF_1:def 6;
hence f is_partial_differentiable_in nx0,i by PDIFF_1:def 9;
end;
assume that
A21:Z c=dom f and
A22:for nx be Point of REAL-NS m st nx in Z holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in nx,i;
thus Z c=dom f by A21;
now let nx0 be Point of REAL-NS m;
assume A23: nx0 in Z;
then A24:f is_partial_differentiable_in nx0,i by A22;
reconsider x0=Proj(i,m).nx0 as Point of S;
f*reproj(i,nx0) is_differentiable_in x0 by A24,PDIFF_1:def 9;
then consider N0 being Neighbourhood of x0 such that
N0 c= dom (f*reproj(i,nx0)) and
A25: ex L be Point of RNS,R be REST of S,T st
for x be Point of S st x in N0 holds
(f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x-(f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0
= L.(x-x0)+R /.(x-x0) by NDIFF_1:def 6;
consider N1 being Neighbourhood of x0 such that
A26: for x be Point of S st x in N1 holds
(reproj(i,nx0)).x in Z by A1,A2,A23,Lm5;
A27: now let x be Point of S;
assume x in N1;
then (reproj(i,nx0)).x in Z by A26;
then (reproj(i,nx0)).x in (dom f) /\ Z by A21,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence (reproj(i,nx0)).x in dom(f|Z) by RELAT_1:90;
end;
A28:N1 c= dom((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))
proof
let z be set;
assume A29:z in N1;
then A30: z in the carrier of S;
reconsider x=z as Point of S by A29;
A31: (reproj(i,nx0)).x in dom(f|Z) by A29,A27;
z in dom (reproj(i,nx0)) by FUNCT_2:def 1,A30;
hence z in dom((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0)) by A31,FUNCT_1:21;
end;
reconsider N=N0 /\ N1 as Neighbourhood of x0 by Lm1;
N c= N1 by XBOOLE_1:17;
then A32:N c= dom((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0)) by A28,XBOOLE_1:1;
consider L be Point of RNS,R be REST of S,T such that
A33: for x be Point of S st x in N0 holds
(f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x-(f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0=L.(x-x0)+R/.(x-x0) by A25;
now let x be Point of S;
assume A34: x in N;
then A35: x in N0 by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
A36: dom (reproj(i,nx0)) = the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
x in N1 by XBOOLE_0:def 4,A34;
then A37:(reproj(i,nx0)).x in dom(f|Z) by A27;
then A38: (reproj(i,nx0)).x in dom f /\ Z by RELAT_1:90;
then A39: (reproj(i,nx0)).x in dom f by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
A40:(reproj(i,nx0)).x0 in dom(f|Z) by A27,NFCONT_1:4;
then A41: (reproj(i,nx0)).x0 in dom f /\ Z by RELAT_1:90;
then A42: (reproj(i,nx0)).x0 in dom f by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
A43: ((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x
= (f|Z)/. (reproj(i,nx0)/.x ) by A37,A36,PARTFUN2:9
.= f/. (reproj(i,nx0)/.x) by A38,PARTFUN2:34
.= (f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x by A36,A39,PARTFUN2:9;
((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0
= (f|Z)/. (reproj(i,nx0)/.x0 ) by A36,A40,PARTFUN2:9
.= f/. (reproj(i,nx0)/.x0) by A41,PARTFUN2:34
.= (f*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0 by A36,A42,PARTFUN2:9;
hence ((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x -((f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0))/.x0
= L.(x-x0)+R/.(x-x0) by A43,A35,A33;
end;
then (f|Z)*reproj(i,nx0) is_differentiable_in x0 by A32
,NDIFF_1:def 6;
hence (f|Z) is_partial_differentiable_in nx0,i by PDIFF_1:def 9;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
Lm6:
for v be Element of REAL m, x be Element of REAL,
i be Element of NAT holds len Replace(v,i,x) = m
proof
let v be Element of REAL m;
let x be Element of REAL;
let i be Element of NAT;
len Replace(v,i,x) = len v by FUNCT_7:99;
hence len Replace(v,i,x) = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
end;
Lm7:
for x be Element of REAL,i,j be Element of NAT st 1 <= j & j <= m holds
(i = j implies Replace(0*m,i,x).j = x) &
(i <> j implies Replace(0*m,i,x).j = 0)
proof
let x be Element of REAL;
let i,j be Element of NAT;
assume 1 <= j & j <= m;
then A1:j in Seg m;
len(0*m) = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then A2:j in dom(0*m) by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
now assume i <> j;
then (0*m)+*(i,x).j = (0*m).j by FUNCT_7:34;
hence Replace(0*m,i,x).j = 0 by A1,FINSEQ_2:71;
end;
hence thesis by A2,FUNCT_7:33;
end;
theorem Th9:
for x,y be Element of REAL,i be Element of NAT st 1 <= i & i <= m
holds Replace(0*m,i,x+y) = Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,y)
proof
let x,y be Element of REAL;
let i be Element of NAT;
assume A1: 1 <= i & i <= m;
A2:len Replace(0*m,i,x+y) = m & len Replace(0*m,i,x) = m &
len Replace(0*m,i,y) = m by Lm6;
then A3:len(Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,y))
= len(Replace(0*m,i,x+y)) by RVSUM_1:145;
for j be Nat st 1 <= j & j <= len(Replace(0*m,i,x+y)) holds
Replace(0*m,i,x+y).j = (Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,y)).j
proof
let j be Nat;
assume A4: 1 <= j & j <= len(Replace(0*m,i,x+y));
reconsider j as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 13;
A5: dom(Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,y))
= dom(Replace(0*m,i,x)) /\ dom(Replace(0*m,i,y)) by VALUED_1:def 1;
j in dom(Replace(0*m,i,x)) &
j in dom(Replace(0*m,i,y)) by A4,A2,FINSEQ_3:27;
then j in dom(Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,y)) by A5
,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then A6: (Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,y)).j
= Replace(0*m,i,x).j + Replace(0*m,i,y).j by VALUED_1:def 1;
per cases;
suppose A7: i = j;
then (Replace((0*m),i,x) + Replace((0*m),i,y)).j
= x + Replace((0*m),i,y).j by A1,A6,Lm7
.= x + y by A1,A7,Lm7;
hence thesis by A1,A7,Lm7;
end;
suppose A8: i <> j;
then (Replace((0*m),i,x) + Replace((0*m),i,y)).j
= 0 qua real number + Replace((0*m),i,y).j by A4,A6,A2,Lm7
.= 0 by A4,A2,A8,Lm7;
hence thesis by A4,A2,A8,Lm7;
end;
end;
hence thesis by A3,FINSEQ_1:18;
end;
theorem Th10:
for x,a be Element of REAL,i be Element of NAT st
1 <= i & i <= m holds Replace(0*m,i,a*x) = a*(Replace(0*m,i,x))
proof
let x,a be Element of REAL;
let i be Element of NAT;
assume A1: 1 <= i & i <= m;
A2:len Replace(0*m,i,a*x) = m & len Replace(0*m,i,x) = m by Lm6;
then A3:len(a*Replace(0*m,i,x)) = len(Replace(0*m,i,a*x)) by RVSUM_1:147;
for j be Nat st 1 <= j & j <= len(Replace(0*m,i,a*x)) holds
Replace(0*m,i,a*x).j = (a*Replace(0*m,i,x)).j
proof
let j be Nat;
assume A4: 1 <= j & j <= len(Replace(0*m,i,a*x));
reconsider j as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 13;
per cases;
suppose A5: i = j;
then Replace(0*m,i,a*x).j = a*x by A1,Lm7
.= a*(Replace(0*m,i,x).j) by A1,A5,Lm7;
hence thesis by RVSUM_1:66;
end;
suppose A6: i <> j;
then Replace(0*m,i,x).j = 0 by A2,A4,Lm7;
then Replace(0*m,i,a*x).j = a*(Replace(0*m,i,x).j) by A2,A4,A6,Lm7;
hence thesis by RVSUM_1:66;
end;
end;
hence thesis by A3,FINSEQ_1:18;
end;
theorem Th11:
for x be Element of REAL,i be Element of NAT st
1 <= i & i <= m & x <> 0 holds Replace(0*m,i,x) <> 0*m
proof
let x be Element of REAL;
let i be Element of NAT;
assume A1: 1 <= i & i <= m & x <> 0;
then A2:i in Seg m;
assume A3: Replace((0*m),i,x) = 0*m;
len(0*m) = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then Seg m = proj1(0*m) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then x = (0*m).i by A3,A2,FUNCT_7:33;
hence contradiction by A1,A2,FINSEQ_2:71;
end;
theorem Th12:
for x,y be Element of REAL, z be Element of REAL m, i be Element of NAT st
1 <= i & i <= m & y = proj(i,m).z holds
Replace(z,i,x) - z = Replace(0*m,i,x-y) &
z - Replace(z,i,x) = Replace(0*m,i,y-x)
proof
let x,y be Element of REAL;
let z be Element of REAL m;
let i be Element of NAT;
assume that
A1: 1 <= i & i <= m and
A2: y = proj(i,m).z;
A3:len Replace(0*m,i,x-y) = m & len Replace(0*m,i,x) = m
& len Replace(0*m,i,-y) = m by Lm6;
A4:dom(Replace(z,i,x)) = dom z by FUNCT_7:32;
A5:dom(-z) = dom z & dom(-Replace(z,i,x)) = dom(Replace(z,i,x))
by VALUED_1:def 5;
A6:dom(Replace(z,i,x) - z) = dom(Replace(z,i,x)) /\ dom(-z) by VALUED_1:def 1;
A7:len(0*m) = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
dom(Replace(z,i,x) - z) = Seg m by A4,A5,A6,EUCLID:3;
then len(Replace(z,i,x) - z) = len (0*m) by A7,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A8:len(Replace(z,i,x) - z) = len Replace(0*m,i,x-y) by FINSEQ_7:7;
for j be Nat st 1 <= j & j <= len(Replace(z,i,x) - z) holds
Replace(0*m,i,x-y).j = (Replace(z,i,x) - z).j
proof
let j be Nat;
assume A9: 1 <= j & j <= len(Replace(z,i,x) - z);
reconsider j as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 13;
A10: j in dom(Replace(z,i,x) - z) by A9,FINSEQ_3:27;
(-z).j = (-1)*(z.j) by RVSUM_1:66;
then (Replace(z,i,x) - z).j
= Replace(z,i,x).j + -(z.j) by A10,VALUED_1:def 1;
then A11: (Replace(z,i,x) - z).j = Replace(z,i,x).j - z.j;
A12: 1 <= i & i <= len z implies Replace(z, i, x).i = x
proof
assume 1 <= i & i <= len z;
then i in dom z by FINSEQ_3:27;
hence thesis by FUNCT_7:33;
end;
A13: dom(Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,-y))
= dom(Replace(0*m,i,x)) /\ dom(Replace(0*m,i,-y)) by VALUED_1:def 1;
j in dom(Replace(0*m,i,x)) &
j in dom(Replace(0*m,i,-y)) by A3,A9,A8,FINSEQ_3:27;
then j in dom(Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,-y)) by A13,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then A14: (Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,-y)).j
= Replace(0*m,i,x).j + Replace(0*m,i,-y).j by VALUED_1:def 1;
per cases;
suppose A15: i = j;
Replace(0*m,i,x-y).j = Replace(0*m,i,x+(-y)).j
.= (Replace(0*m,i,x) + Replace(0*m,i,-y)).j by A1,Th9
.= x + Replace(0*m,i,-y).j by A1,A14,A15,Lm7
.= x+(-y) by A1,A15,Lm7
.= x - proj(i,m).z by A2;
hence thesis by A11,A9,A4,A5,A6,FINSEQ_3:31,A12,A15,PDIFF_1:def 1;
end;
suppose A16: not(i = j);
then Replace(0*m,i,x-y).j = z.j - z.j by A3,A9,A8,Lm7;
hence thesis by A11,A16,FUNCT_7:34;
end;
end;
hence
A17: Replace(z,i,x) - z = Replace(0*m,i,x-y) by A8,FINSEQ_1:18;
reconsider a = -1 as Element of REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
z - Replace(z,i,x) = -Replace(0*m,i,x-y) by A17,RVSUM_1:56;
then z - Replace(z,i,x) = Replace(0*m,i,a*(x-y)) by A1,Th10;
hence z - Replace(z,i,x) = Replace(0*m,i,y-x);
end;
theorem Th13:
for x,y be Element of REAL,i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
reproj(i,0*m).(x+y) = reproj(i,0*m).x+reproj(i,0*m).y
proof
let x,y be Element of REAL,i be Element of NAT;
assume A1: 1 <=i & i <= m;
Replace(0*m,i,x) = reproj(i,0*m).x & Replace(0*m,i,y) = reproj(i,0*m).y &
(reproj(i,0*m)).(x+y) = Replace(0*m,i,x+y) by PDIFF_1:def 5;
hence thesis by A1,Th9;
end;
theorem Th14:
for x,y be Point of REAL-NS 1,i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(x+y)
= reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).x+reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).y
proof
let x,y be Point of REAL-NS 1,i be Element of NAT;
assume A1: 1 <=i & i <= m;
consider q1 be Element of REAL, z1 be Element of REAL m such that
A2: x = <*q1*> & z1 = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).x = reproj(i,z1).q1 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
consider q2 be Element of REAL, z2 be Element of REAL m such that
A3: y = <*q2*> & z2 = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).y = reproj(i,z2).q2 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
consider q12 be Element of REAL, z12 be Element of REAL m such that
A4:x+y = <*q12*> & z12 = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(x+y) = reproj(i,z12).q12 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
A5:0.(REAL-NS m) = 0*m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
reconsider qq1= <*q1*> as Element of REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
reconsider qq2= <*q2*> as Element of REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
x+y = qq1 + qq2 by REAL_NS1:2,A2,A3;
then A6:x+y = <*q1+q2*> by RVSUM_1:29;
reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).x+reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).y
= reproj(i,(0*m)).q1 + reproj(i,(0*m)).q2 by A2,A3,A5,REAL_NS1:2
.= reproj(i,(0*m)).(q1+q2) by A1,Th13;
hence thesis by A6,A4,A5,FINSEQ_1:97;
end;
theorem Th15:
for x,a be Element of REAL,i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
reproj(i,0*m).(a*x) = a*(reproj(i,0*m).x)
proof
let x,a be Element of REAL,i be Element of NAT;
assume 1 <=i & i <= m;
then A1:Replace(0*m,i,a*x) = a*(Replace(0*m,i,x)) by Th10;
Replace(0*m,i,x) = reproj(i,0*m).x by PDIFF_1:def 5;
hence (reproj(i,0*m)).(a*x) = a*(reproj(i,0*m).x) by A1,PDIFF_1:def 5;
end;
theorem Th16:
for x be Point of REAL-NS 1, a be Element of REAL, i be Element of NAT st
1 <=i & i <= m holds
reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(a*x) = a*(reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).x)
proof
let x be Point of REAL-NS 1,a be Element of REAL,
i be Element of NAT;
assume A1: 1 <=i & i <= m;
consider q1 be Element of REAL, z1 be Element of REAL m such that
A2: x = <*q1*> & z1 = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).x = reproj(i,z1).q1 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
consider q12 be Element of REAL, z12 be Element of REAL m such that
A3:a*x = <*q12*> & z12 = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(a*x) = reproj(i,z12).q12 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
A4:0.(REAL-NS m) = 0*m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
reconsider qq1= <*q1*> as Element of REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
a*x = a*qq1 by REAL_NS1:3,A2;
then A5:a*x = <*a*q1*> by RVSUM_1:69;
a*(reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).x) = a*(reproj(i,0*m).q1) by A2,A4,REAL_NS1:3
.= reproj(i,0*m).(a*q1) by A1,Th15;
hence thesis by A5,A3,A4,FINSEQ_1:97;
end;
theorem Th17:
for x be Element of REAL,i be Element of NAT st
1 <=i & i <= m & x <> 0 holds reproj(i,0*m).x <> 0*m
proof
let x be Element of REAL, i be Element of NAT;
assume 1 <=i & i <= m & x <> 0;
then Replace(0*m,i,x) <> 0*m by Th11;
hence thesis by PDIFF_1:def 5;
end;
theorem Th18:
for x be Point of REAL-NS 1, i be Element of NAT st
1 <=i & i <= m & x <> 0.(REAL-NS 1) holds
reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).x <> 0.(REAL-NS m)
proof
let x be Point of REAL-NS 1, i be Element of NAT;
assume A1: 1 <=i & i <= m & x <> 0.(REAL-NS 1);
consider q1 be Element of REAL, z1 be Element of REAL m such that
A2: x = <*q1*> & z1 = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).x = reproj(i,z1).q1 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
A3:0.(REAL-NS m) = 0*m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
now assume q1=0;
then <*q1*> = 0*1 by FINSEQ_2:73;
hence contradiction by A2,A1,REAL_NS1:def 4;
end;
hence thesis by A2,A3,A1,Th17;
end;
theorem Th19:
for x,y be Element of REAL, z be Element of REAL m, i be Element of NAT st
1 <= i & i <= m & y = proj(i,m).z holds
reproj(i,z).x - z = reproj(i,0*m).(x-y) &
z - reproj(i,z).x = reproj(i,0*m).(y-x)
proof
let x,y be Element of REAL,z be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT;
assume 1 <= i & i <= m & y=proj(i,m).z;
then A1:Replace(z,i,x) - z = Replace(0*m,i,x-y)
& z - Replace(z,i,x) = Replace(0*m,i,y-x) by Th12;
Replace(z,i,x) = reproj(i,z).x by PDIFF_1:def 5;
hence thesis by A1,PDIFF_1:def 5;
end;
theorem Th20:
for x,y be Point of REAL-NS 1,i be Element of NAT, z be Point of REAL-NS m st
1 <=i & i <= m & y=Proj(i,m).z holds
reproj(i,z).x - z = reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(x-y)
& z - reproj(i,z).x = reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(y-x)
proof
let x,y be Point of REAL-NS 1, i be Element of NAT,
z be Point of REAL-NS m;
assume A1: 1 <=i & i <= m & y=Proj(i,m).z;
consider q1 be Element of REAL, z1 be Element of REAL m such that
A2: x = <*q1*> & z1 = z & reproj(i,z).x = reproj(i,z1).q1 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
consider q2 be Element of REAL, z2 be Element of REAL m such that
A3: y = <*q2*> & z2 = z & reproj(i,z).y = reproj(i,z2).q2 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
consider q12 be Element of REAL, z12 be Element of REAL m such that
A4:x-y = <*q12*> & z12 = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(x-y) = reproj(i,z12).q12 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
consider q21 be Element of REAL, z21 be Element of REAL m such that
A5:y-x = <*q21*> & z21 = 0.(REAL-NS m)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(y-x) = reproj(i,z21).q21 by PDIFF_1:def 6;
A6:0.(REAL-NS m) = 0*m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
reconsider qq1= <*q1*> as Element of REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
reconsider qq2= <*q2*> as Element of REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
x-y = qq1 - qq2 & y-x = qq2 - qq1 by REAL_NS1:5,A2,A3;
then x-y =<*q1-q2*> & y-x = <*q2-q1*> by RVSUM_1:50;
then A7:reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(x-y)=reproj(i,(0*m)).(q1-q2)
& reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).(y-x)=reproj(i,(0*m)).(q2-q1)
by A4,A5,A6,FINSEQ_1:97;
y = <* proj(i,m).z *> by A1,PDIFF_1:def 4;
then q2=proj(i,m).z1 by A2,A3,FINSEQ_1:97;
then reproj(i,z1).q1 - z1 = reproj(i,(0*m)).(q1-q2)
& z1 - reproj(i,z1).q1 = reproj(i,0*m).(q2-q1) by Th19,A1;
hence thesis by A7,REAL_NS1:5,A2;
end;
theorem Th21:
f is_differentiable_in x & 1 <= i & i <= m implies
f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i &
partdiff(f,x,i) = diff(f,x) * reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m))
proof
assume A1: f is_differentiable_in x;
assume A2: 1 <= i & i <= m;
consider N being Neighbourhood of x such that
A3: N c= dom f & ex R be REST of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n st
for y be Point of REAL-NS m st y in N holds
f/.y-f/.x = diff(f,x).(y-x) + R/.(y-x) by A1,NDIFF_1:def 7;
consider R be REST of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n such that
A4: for y be Point of REAL-NS m st y in N holds
f/.y-f/.x = diff(f,x).(y-x) + R/.(y-x) by A3;
consider r0 be Real such that
A5:0 < r0 & {z where z is Point of REAL-NS m : ||. z-x .|| < r0} c= N
by NFCONT_1:def 3;
set u = f*reproj(i,x);
reconsider x0 = Proj(i,m).x as Point of REAL-NS 1;
set Z=0.(REAL-NS m);
set Nx0 = {z where z is Point of REAL-NS 1: ||. z-x0 .|| < r0 };
now let s be set;
assume s in Nx0;
then ex z be Point of REAL-NS 1 st s=z & ||. z-x0 .|| < r0;
hence s in the carrier of REAL-NS 1;
end;
then Nx0 is Subset of REAL-NS 1 by TARSKI:def 3;
then reconsider Nx0 as Neighbourhood of x0 by A5,NFCONT_1:def 3;
A6:
for xi be Element of REAL-NS 1 st xi in Nx0 holds reproj(i,x).xi in N
proof
let xi be Element of REAL-NS 1;
assume xi in Nx0;
then A7: ex z be Point of REAL-NS 1 st xi=z & ||. z-x0 .|| < r0;
reproj(i,x).xi-x = reproj(i,Z).(xi-x0) by A2,Th20;
then ||. reproj(i,x).xi-x .|| < r0 by A2,Th5,A7;
then
reproj(i,x).xi in {z where z is Point of REAL-NS m: ||. z-x .|| < r0 };
hence thesis by A5;
end;
A8:R is total by NDIFF_1:def 5;
then A9:
dom R = the carrier of REAL-NS m by PARTFUN1:def 4;
reconsider R1 = R*reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m))
as PartFunc of REAL-NS 1 ,REAL-NS n;
A10:dom(reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m))) = the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
A11:dom R1 = the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by A8,PARTFUN1:def 4;
for r be Real st r > 0 ex d be Real st d > 0 &
for z be Point of REAL-NS 1 st z <> 0.(REAL-NS 1) & ||.z.|| < d
holds (||.z.||" * ||. R1/.z .||) < r
proof
let r be Real;
assume r > 0;
then consider d be Real such that
A12: d > 0 & for z be Point of REAL-NS m st z <> 0.(REAL-NS m) & ||.z.|| < d
holds (||.z.||" * ||. R/.z .||) < r by A8,NDIFF_1:26;
take d;
now let z be Point of REAL-NS 1;
assume A13: z <> 0.(REAL-NS 1) & ||.z.|| < d;
A14: ||. reproj(i,Z).z .|| = ||.z.|| by A2,Th5;
R/.(reproj(i,Z).z) = R.(reproj(i,Z).z) by A9,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then R/.(reproj(i,Z).z) =R1.z by FUNCT_1:23,A10;
then R/.(reproj(i,Z).z) =R1/.z by A11,PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence ||.z.||" * ||. R1/.z .|| < r by A12,A14,A13,Th18,A2;
end;
hence thesis by A12;
end;
then reconsider R1 as REST of REAL-NS 1,REAL-NS n by NDIFF_1:26,A8;
reconsider dfx = diff(f,x)
as bounded LinearOperator of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n by LOPBAN_1:def 10;
reconsider LD1 = dfx*reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m))
as Function of REAL-NS 1,REAL-NS n;
A15:now let x,y be Element of REAL-NS 1;
LD1.(x+y) = dfx.(reproj(i,Z).(x+y)) by FUNCT_2:21;
then LD1.(x+y) =dfx.(reproj(i,Z).x+reproj(i,Z).y) by Th14,A2;
then LD1.(x+y) =dfx.(reproj(i,Z).x)+dfx.(reproj(i,Z).y) by GRCAT_1:def 13;
then LD1.(x+y) =LD1.x+dfx.(reproj(i,Z).y) by FUNCT_2:21;
hence LD1.(x+y) =LD1.x+LD1.y by FUNCT_2:21;
end;
now let x be Element of REAL-NS 1, a be Real;
LD1.(a*x) = dfx.(reproj(i,Z).(a*x)) by FUNCT_2:21;
then LD1.(a*x) =dfx.(a*(reproj(i,Z).x)) by Th16,A2;
then LD1.(a*x) =a*dfx.(reproj(i,Z).x) by LOPBAN_1:def 6;
hence LD1.(a*x) =a*LD1.x by FUNCT_2:21;
end;
then reconsider LD1 as LinearOperator of REAL-NS 1,REAL-NS n
by A15,LOPBAN_1:def 6,GRCAT_1:def 13;
reconsider LD1 as Point of
R_NormSpace_of_BoundedLinearOperators(REAL-NS 1,REAL-NS n)
by LOPBAN_1:def 10;
now let s be set;
assume s in (reproj(i,x)).:Nx0;
then ex t being Element of REAL-NS 1 st
t in Nx0 & s = (reproj(i,x)).t by FUNCT_2:116;
then s in N by A6;
hence s in dom f by A3;
end;
then A16:(reproj(i,x)).:Nx0 c= dom f by TARSKI:def 3;
dom(reproj(i,x)) = the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then A17:
Nx0 c= dom u by FUNCT_3:3,A16;
A18:for y be Point of REAL-NS 1 st y in Nx0 holds
u/.y-u/.x0 = LD1.(y-x0) + R1/.(y-x0)
proof
let y be Point of REAL-NS 1;
assume A19: y in Nx0;
then A20: reproj(i,x).y in N by A6;
consider q be Element of REAL, z be Element of REAL m such that
A21: x0 = <*q*> & z = x & reproj(i,x).x0 = reproj(i,z).q by PDIFF_1:def 6;
reconsider zi=z.i as Element of REAL;
x0 = <* proj(i,m).x *> by PDIFF_1:def 4;
then q = proj(i,m).z by A21,FINSEQ_1:97;
then reproj(i,x).x0 = reproj(i,z).(z.i) by A21,PDIFF_1:def 1;
then reproj(i,x).x0 = Replace(z,i,zi) by PDIFF_1:def 5;
then A22:reproj(i,x).x0 = x by A21,FUNCT_7:37;
A23:x0 in Nx0 by NFCONT_1:4;
A24:reproj(i,x).x0 in N by A6,NFCONT_1:4;
u/.y = u.y by A19,A17,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then u/.y = f.(reproj(i,x).y) by FUNCT_2:21;
then A25:u/.y = f/.(reproj(i,x).y) by A20,A3,PARTFUN1:def 8;
u/.x0 = u.x0 by A23,A17,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then u/.x0 = f.(reproj(i,x).x0) by FUNCT_2:21;
then A26: u/.y-u/.x0 = f/.(reproj(i,x).y) -f/.x by A25,A22,A24,A3
,PARTFUN1:def 8;
R/.(reproj(i,Z).(y-x0)) = R.(reproj(i,Z).(y-x0)) by A9,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then R/.(reproj(i,Z).(y-x0)) =R1.(y-x0) by FUNCT_1:23,A10;
then A27: R/.(reproj(i,Z).(y-x0)) =R1/.(y-x0) by A11,PARTFUN1:def 8;
u/.y-u/.x0 = diff(f,x).(reproj(i,x).y-x) + R/.(reproj(i,x).y-x)
by A26,A4,A19,A6;
then u/.y-u/.x0 = dfx.(reproj(i,Z).(y-x0)) + R/.(reproj(i,x).y-x)
by A2,Th20;
then u/.y-u/.x0 = dfx.(reproj(i,Z).(y-x0)) + R/.(reproj(i,Z).(y-x0))
by A2,Th20;
hence u/.y-u/.x0 = LD1.(y-x0) + R1/.(y-x0) by A27,FUNCT_2:21;
end;
then A28:
u is_differentiable_in x0 by A17,NDIFF_1:def 6;
hence f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i by PDIFF_1:def 9;
thus partdiff(f,x,i) = diff(f,x)* reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m))
by A28,NDIFF_1:def 7,A17,A18;
end;
theorem Th22:
g is_differentiable_in y & 1 <=i & i <= m implies
g is_partial_differentiable_in y,i
& partdiff(g,y,i) = (diff(g,y)*reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m))).<*1*>
proof
assume A1: g is_differentiable_in y & 1 <=i & i <= m;
then consider f be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n,
x be Point of REAL-NS m such that
A2: f=g & x=y & f is_differentiable_in x by PDIFF_1:def 7;
A3:ex f2 be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n, x2 be Point of REAL-NS m st
f2=g & x2=y & diff(g,y) = diff(f2,x2) by A1,PDIFF_1:def 8;
A4:f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i &
partdiff(f,x,i) = diff(f,x)*reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)) by Th21,A2,A1;
then g is_partial_differentiable_in y,i by A2,PDIFF_1:def 13;
then
ex f1 be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n, x1 be Point of REAL-NS m st
f1=g & x1=y & partdiff(g,y,i) = partdiff(f1,x1,i).<*1*>
by PDIFF_1:def 14;
hence thesis by A4,A3,A2,PDIFF_1:def 13;
end;
definition
let n be non empty Element of NAT;
let f be PartFunc of REAL n,REAL;
let x be Element of REAL n;
pred f is_differentiable_in x means :Def1:
<>*f is_differentiable_in x;
end;
definition
let n be non empty Element of NAT;
let f be PartFunc of REAL n,REAL;
let x be Element of REAL n;
func diff(f,x) -> Function of REAL n,REAL equals
proj(1,1)*diff(<>*f,x);
coherence;
end;
theorem
h is_differentiable_in y & 1 <=i & i <= m implies
h is_partial_differentiable_in y,i
& partdiff(h,y,i) = diff(h*reproj(i,y),proj(i,m).y)
& partdiff(h,y,i) = diff(h,y).(reproj(i,0*m).1)
proof
assume A1: h is_differentiable_in y & 1 <=i & i <= m;
then <>*h is_differentiable_in y by Def1;
then A2: <>*h is_partial_differentiable_in y,i
& partdiff(<>*h,y,i) = (diff(<>*h,y)*reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m))).<*1*>
by Th22,A1;
then A3:ex g be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS 1, x be Point of REAL-NS m st
<>*h =g & x=y & g is_partial_differentiable_in x,i by PDIFF_1:def 13;
hence h is_partial_differentiable_in y,i by PDIFF_1:14;
thus partdiff(h,y,i) = diff(h*reproj(i,y),proj(i,m).y);
A4:ex k be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS 1, z be Point of REAL-NS m st
<>*h=k & y=z & partdiff(<>*h,y,i) = partdiff(k,z,i).<*1*>
by PDIFF_1:def 14,A2;
<*1*> in REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
then A5:<*1*> in the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by REAL_NS1:def 4;
<*partdiff(h,y,i)*> = partdiff(<>*h,y,i) by A4,A3,PDIFF_1:15;
then A6:<*partdiff(h,y,i)*> =diff(<>*h,y).(reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).<*1*>)
by A2,FUNCT_2:21,A5;
0.(REAL-NS m) = 0*m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
then ex q be Element of REAL, z be Element of REAL m st
<*1*>=<*q*> & z=0*m & reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).<*1*> = reproj(i,z).q
by PDIFF_1:def 6,A5;
then
reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)).<*1*> = reproj(i,0*m).1 by FINSEQ_1:97;
then partdiff(h,y,i)
= proj(1,1).(diff(<>*h,y).(reproj(i,0*m).1)) by A6,PDIFF_1:1;
hence partdiff(h,y,i) = diff(h,y).(reproj(i,0*m).1) by FUNCT_2:21;
end;
theorem Th24:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, v,w,u be FinSequence of REAL m st
dom v = dom w & u = v + w holds Sum u = Sum v + Sum w
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT;
defpred P[Nat] means
for xseq, yseq, zseq be FinSequence of REAL m st
$1= len zseq & len zseq = len xseq & len zseq = len yseq
& for i be Element of NAT st i in dom zseq holds
zseq/.i = xseq/.i + yseq/.i
holds Sum zseq = Sum xseq + Sum yseq;
A1:P[0]
proof
let xseq, yseq, zseq be FinSequence of REAL m;
assume
A2: 0=len zseq & len zseq = len xseq & len zseq = len yseq
& for i be Element of NAT st i in dom zseq holds
zseq/.i = xseq/.i + yseq/.i;
then A3:Sum zseq = 0*m & Sum yseq = 0*m by EUCLID_7:def 11;
0*m = 0.TOP-REAL m by EUCLID:74;
then Sum xseq + Sum yseq
= 0.TOP-REAL m + 0.TOP-REAL m by A2,A3,EUCLID_7:def 11
.= 0.TOP-REAL m by EUCLID:31;
hence thesis by A3,EUCLID:74;
end;
A4:now let i be Element of NAT;
assume A5: P[i];
now let xseq,yseq,zseq be FinSequence of REAL m;
assume A6: i+1 = len zseq & len zseq = len xseq & len zseq = len yseq
& for k be Element of NAT st k in dom zseq holds
zseq/.k = xseq/.k + yseq/.k;
set xseq0=xseq|i;
set yseq0=yseq|i;
set zseq0=zseq|i;
A7:dom xseq = dom yseq & dom zseq = dom yseq by A6,FINSEQ_3:31;
A8: i = len xseq0 by A6,NAT_1:11,FINSEQ_1:80;
then A9: len xseq0 = len yseq0 & len xseq0 = len zseq0
by A6,NAT_1:11,FINSEQ_1:80;
for k be Element of NAT st k in dom zseq0 holds
zseq0/.k = xseq0/.k + yseq0/.k
proof
let k be Element of NAT;
assume A10: k in dom zseq0;
then A11: k in dom(yseq|Seg i) & k in dom(xseq|Seg i)
& k in dom(zseq|Seg i) by A9,FINSEQ_3:31;
A12: k in Seg i & k in dom zseq by A10,RELAT_1:86;
then A13: zseq/.k = xseq/.k + yseq/.k by A6;
A14: xseq/.k = xseq.k by A12,A7,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= (xseq|Seg i).k by A12,FUNCT_1:72
.= (xseq|Seg i)/.k by A11,PARTFUN1:def 8;
A15: yseq/.k = yseq.k by A7,A12,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= (yseq|Seg i).k by A12,FUNCT_1:72
.= (yseq|Seg i)/.k by A11,PARTFUN1:def 8;
zseq0/.k = (zseq|Seg i).k by A10,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= zseq.k by A12,FUNCT_1:72;
hence zseq0/.k = xseq0/.k + yseq0/.k by A13, A14, A15,A12
,PARTFUN1:def 8;
end;
then A16:Sum zseq0 = Sum xseq0 + Sum yseq0 by A8,A9,A5;
consider v be Element of REAL m such that
A17: v = xseq.(len xseq) & Sum xseq = Sum xseq0 + v by A6,A8,PDIFF_6:15;
consider w be Element of REAL m such that
A18:w = yseq.(len yseq) & Sum yseq = Sum yseq0 + w by A6,A8,A9,PDIFF_6:15;
consider t be Element of REAL m such that
A19: t = zseq.(len zseq) & Sum zseq = Sum zseq0 + t by A6,A8,A9,PDIFF_6:15;
A20:dom zseq = Seg(i+1) by A6,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then len zseq in dom zseq by A6,FINSEQ_1:6;
then t = zseq/.(len zseq) by A19,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then A21:t = xseq/.(len xseq) + yseq/.(len yseq) by A6,A20,FINSEQ_1:6;
A22: dom xseq = Seg(i+1) & dom yseq = Seg(i+1) by A6,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A23: v = xseq/.(len xseq) & w = yseq/.(len yseq)
by A6,A17,A18,PARTFUN1:def 8,FINSEQ_1:6;
reconsider F1 = Sum xseq0 as real-valued FinSequence;
reconsider F2 = Sum yseq0 as real-valued FinSequence;
reconsider F3 = xseq/.(len xseq) as real-valued FinSequence
by A22,A6,A17,PARTFUN1:def 8,FINSEQ_1:6;
reconsider F4 = yseq/.(len yseq) as real-valued FinSequence
by A22,A6,A18,PARTFUN1:def 8,FINSEQ_1:6;
Sum zseq = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 by A19,A16,A21,RVSUM_1:32;
then Sum zseq = F1 + F3 + F2 + F4 by RVSUM_1:32;
hence Sum zseq =Sum xseq + Sum yseq by A23,A17,A18
,RVSUM_1:32;
end;
hence P[i+1];
end;
A24:for k be Element of NAT holds P[k] from NAT_1:sch 1(A1,A4);
let xseq,yseq,zseq be FinSequence of REAL m;
assume A25: dom xseq = dom yseq & zseq = xseq + yseq;
then A26:
len yseq = len xseq by FINSEQ_3:31;
xseq + yseq = xseq<++>yseq by INTEGR15:def 9;
then dom zseq = dom xseq /\ dom yseq by A25,VALUED_2:def 45;
then A27:
len zseq = len xseq by A25,FINSEQ_3:31;
for i be Element of NAT st i in dom zseq holds
zseq/.i = xseq/.i + yseq/.i by A25,INTEGR15:21;
hence Sum zseq = Sum xseq + Sum yseq by A26,A27,A24;
end;
theorem Th25:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, r be Real, w,u be FinSequence of REAL m st
u = r(#)w holds Sum u = r * Sum w
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT, r be Real;
defpred P[Nat] means
for xseq, yseq be FinSequence of REAL m st
$1= len xseq & len xseq = len yseq &
for i be Element of NAT st i in dom xseq holds yseq/.i=r*(xseq/.i)
holds Sum yseq = r * Sum xseq;
A1:P[0]
proof
let xseq,yseq be FinSequence of REAL m;
assume A2: 0 = len xseq & len xseq = len yseq & for i be Element of NAT st
i in dom xseq holds yseq/.i=r*(xseq/.i);
reconsider r1=r as real number;
Sum xseq = 0*m by A2,EUCLID_7:def 11;
then r * Sum xseq = r1 * 0.TOP-REAL m by EUCLID:69,EUCLID:74
.= 0.TOP-REAL m by EUCLID:32
.= 0*m by EUCLID:74;
hence thesis by A2,EUCLID_7:def 11;
end;
A3:now let i be Element of NAT;
assume A4: P[i];
now let xseq,yseq be FinSequence of REAL m;
assume A5: i+1 = len xseq & len xseq = len yseq &
for k be Element of NAT st
k in dom xseq holds yseq/.k = r * xseq/.k;
then A6:dom xseq = dom yseq by FINSEQ_3:31;
set xseq0 = xseq|i;
set yseq0 = yseq|i;
A7: i = len xseq0 by A5,NAT_1:11,FINSEQ_1:80;
then A8: len xseq0 = len yseq0 by A5,NAT_1:11,FINSEQ_1:80;
for k be Element of NAT st k in dom xseq0 holds yseq0/.k=r*(xseq0/.k)
proof
let k be Element of NAT;
assume A9: k in dom xseq0;
then A10: k in dom xseq & k in Seg i by RELAT_1:86;
A11: k in dom(yseq|Seg i) by A9, A8,FINSEQ_3:31;
A12: xseq/.k = xseq.k by A10,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= (xseq|Seg i).k by A10,FUNCT_1:72
.= xseq0/.k by A9,PARTFUN1:def 8;
yseq0/.k = (yseq|Seg i).k by A11,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= yseq.k by A10,FUNCT_1:72
.= yseq/.k by A10,A6,PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence yseq0/.k = r * (xseq0/.k) by A5,A10,A12;
end;
then A13:Sum yseq0 = r * Sum xseq0 by A7,A8,A4;
consider v be Element of REAL m such that
A14: v=xseq.(len xseq) & Sum xseq = Sum xseq0 + v by A5,A7,PDIFF_6:15;
consider w be Element of REAL m such that
A15:w=yseq.(len yseq) & Sum yseq = Sum yseq0 + w by A5,A7,A8,PDIFF_6:15;
A16:dom xseq = Seg(i+1) by A5,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A17:len yseq in dom xseq by A5,FINSEQ_1:6;
then w = yseq/.(len yseq) by A15,A6,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= r * xseq/.(len yseq) by A5,A16,FINSEQ_1:6
.= r * v by A17,A5,PARTFUN1:def 8,A14;
hence Sum yseq = r * Sum xseq by A15,A13,A14,RVSUM_1:73;
end;
hence P[i+1];
end;
A18:for k be Element of NAT holds P[k] from NAT_1:sch 1(A1,A3);
let xseq,yseq be FinSequence of REAL m;
B1: r(#)xseq = xseq[#]r by INTEGR15:def 11;
assume A19: yseq=r(#)xseq;
then A20:dom yseq = dom xseq by B1,VALUED_2:def 39;
then A21:len xseq = len yseq by FINSEQ_3:31;
for i be Element of NAT st i in dom xseq holds yseq/.i = r * xseq/.i
by A19,A20,B1,INTEGR15:23;
hence Sum yseq = r * Sum xseq by A21,A18;
end;
Lm8:
for m,n be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
x be Element of REAL m
ex L be bounded LinearOperator of m,n st
for h be Element of REAL m
ex w be FinSequence of REAL n st
dom w = Seg m
& (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w.i = proj(i,m).h * partdiff(f,x,i))
& L.h=Sum w
proof
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
x be Element of REAL m;
defpred LX[set,set] means
ex w be FinSequence of REAL n st
dom w = Seg m
& (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w.i = (proj(i,m).$1)*(partdiff(f,x,i)))
& $2=Sum w;
A1:for v being Element of REAL m holds ex y be Element of REAL n st LX[v,y]
proof
let v be Element of REAL m;
defpred YX[set,set] means
ex i be Element of NAT st i=$1 & $2 = (proj(i,m).v)*(partdiff(f,x,i));
A2:for i be Nat st i in Seg m holds ex r being Element of REAL n st YX[i,r]
proof
let i be Nat;
assume i in Seg m;
reconsider i0=i as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 13;
proj(i0,m).v * partdiff(f,x,i0) in REAL n;
hence thesis;
end;
consider w be FinSequence of REAL n such that
A3: dom w = Seg m
& for i be Nat st i in Seg m holds YX[i,w.i] from FINSEQ_1:sch 5(A2);
A4:now let i be Element of NAT;
assume i in Seg m;
then YX[i,w.i] by A3;
hence w.i = proj(i,m).v * partdiff(f,x,i);
end;
reconsider w0 = Sum w as Element of REAL n;
ex w be FinSequence of REAL n st dom w=Seg m
& (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w.i = (proj(i,m).v)*(partdiff(f,x,i)))
& w0 = Sum w by A4,A3;
hence ex y0 be Element of REAL n st LX[v,y0];
end;
consider L being Function of REAL m,REAL n such that
A5: for h being Element of REAL m holds LX[h,L.h] from FUNCT_2:sch 3(A1);
A6:for s,t being Element of REAL m holds L.(s+t) = L.s + L.t
proof
let s,t being Element of REAL m;
consider w be FinSequence of REAL n such that
A7: dom w=Seg m & (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w.i = proj(i,m).s * partdiff(f,x,i))
& L.s = Sum w by A5;
consider v be FinSequence of REAL n such that
A8: dom v=Seg m & (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
v.i = proj(i,m).t * partdiff(f,x,i))
& L.t = Sum v by A5;
consider u be FinSequence of REAL n such that
A9: dom u=Seg m & (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
u.i = proj(i,m).(s+t) * partdiff(f,x,i))
& L.(s+t) = Sum u by A5;
B1: w+v = w<++>v by INTEGR15:def 9;
A10: dom u = dom w /\ dom v by A7,A8,A9;
now let j be set;
assume A11: j in dom u;
then reconsider i = j as Element of NAT;
A12: 1 <= i & i <= m by A9,A11,FINSEQ_1:3;
len w = m by FINSEQ_1:def 3,A7;
then A13: w/.i = w.i by A12,FINSEQ_4:24;
B13: w.i = proj(i,m).s * partdiff(f,x,i) by A7,A9,A11;
len v = m by FINSEQ_1:def 3,A8;
then A14: v/.i = v.i by A12,FINSEQ_4:24;
B14: v.i = proj(i,m).t * partdiff(f,x,i) by A8,A9,A11;
thus u.j = proj(i,m).(s+t) * partdiff(f,x,i) by A9,A11
.= (s+t).i * partdiff(f,x,i) by PDIFF_1:def 1
.= (s.i + t.i) * partdiff(f,x,i) by RVSUM_1:27
.= (proj(i,m).s + t.i) * partdiff(f,x,i) by PDIFF_1:def 1
.= (proj(i,m).s + proj(i,m).t) * partdiff(f,x,i) by PDIFF_1:def 1
.= w.j + v.j by A13,A14,B13,B14,RVSUM_1:72;
end;
then u=w+v by B1,A10,VALUED_2:def 45;
hence L.(s+t) = L.s + L.t by A9,A7,A8,Th24;
end;
for s being Element of REAL m, r being Real holds L.(r*s) = r*(L.s)
proof
let s be Element of REAL m, r being Real;
consider w be FinSequence of REAL n such that
A15: dom w = Seg m & (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w.i = proj(i,m).s * partdiff(f,x,i))
& L.s = Sum w by A5;
consider u be FinSequence of REAL n such that
A16: dom u = Seg m & (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
u.i = (proj(i,m).(r*s))* partdiff(f,x,i))
& L.(r*s) = Sum u by A5;
B1: r(#)w = w[#]r by INTEGR15:def 11;
now let j be set;
assume A17: j in dom u;
then reconsider i = j as Element of NAT;
A18: 1 <= i & i <= m by A16,A17,FINSEQ_1:3;
len w = m by FINSEQ_1:def 3,A15;
then A19: w/.i = w.i by A18,FINSEQ_4:24;
B19: w.i = proj(i,m).s * partdiff(f,x,i) by A15,A16,A17;
thus u.j = (proj(i,m).(r*s))*(partdiff(f,x,i)) by A16,A17
.= ((r*s).i) *(partdiff(f,x,i)) by PDIFF_1:def 1
.= (r*(s.i)) *(partdiff(f,x,i)) by RVSUM_1:67
.= (r*proj(i,m).s)*(partdiff(f,x,i)) by PDIFF_1:def 1
.= r(#)(w.j) by A19,B19,RVSUM_1:71;
end;
then u = r(#)w by B1,A15,A16,VALUED_2:def 39;
hence L.(r*s) = r * L.s by A15,A16,Th25;
end;
then reconsider L as LinearOperator of m,n by A6,PDIFF_6:def 1,def 2;
take L;
thus thesis by A5;
end;
theorem Th26:
for n be non empty Element of NAT, h,g be FinSequence of REAL n st
len h = len g + 1 &
(for i be Nat st i in dom g holds g/.i = h /.i - h/.(i+1)) holds
h /.1 - h/.(len h) = Sum g
proof
let n be non empty Element of NAT,
h,g be FinSequence of REAL n;
assume that
A1: len h = len g + 1 and
A2: for i be Nat st i in dom g holds g/.i = h/.i - h/.(i+1);
per cases;
suppose A3: len g = 0;
then h/.1 - h/.(len h) = 0*n by A1,EUCLIDLP:14;
hence thesis by A3,EUCLID_7:def 11;
end;
suppose A4:len g > 0;
then A5: Sum g = (accum g).len g by EUCLID_7:def 11;
defpred P[Nat] means $1 <= len g implies (accum g).$1 = h/.1 - h/.($1+1);
A6: P[1]
proof
assume 1 <= len g;
then 1 in Seg len g;
then A7: 1 in dom g by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
(accum g).1 = g.1 by EUCLID_7:def 10;
then (accum g).1 = g/.1 by A7,PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence (accum g).1 = h/.1 - h/.(1+1) by A7,A2;
end;
A8: for j be Nat st 1 <= j holds P[j] implies P[j+1]
proof
let j be Nat;
assume A9: 1 <= j;
assume A10: P[j];
assume A11:j+1 <= len g;
then A12: j < len g by NAT_1:13;
1 <= j+1 by XREAL_1:40;
then A13: j+1 in dom g by A11,FINSEQ_3:27;
len g = len (accum g) by EUCLID_7:def 10;
then A14: j in dom (accum g) by A9,A12,FINSEQ_3:27;
(accum g).(j+1) = (accum g)/.j + g/.(j+1) by A9,A12,EUCLID_7:def 10;
then A15: (accum g).(j+1) = (accum g)/.j + (h/.(j+1) - h/.(j+1+1))by A2,A13;
reconsider hj1 = h/.(j+1) as Point of TOP-REAL n by EUCLID:25;
reconsider hj2 = h/.(j+2) as Point of TOP-REAL n by EUCLID:25;
reconsider hj3 = (h/.1 - h/.(j+1))as Point of TOP-REAL n by EUCLID:25;
(accum g).(j+1) = hj3 + (hj1 - hj2)
by A15,A10,A11,A14,NAT_1:13,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then (accum g).(j+1) = hj3 + hj1 - hj2 by EUCLID:49;
hence thesis by RVSUM_1:64;
end;
A16:1 <= len g by A4,NAT_1:14;
for i be Nat st 1 <= i holds P[i] from NAT_1:sch 8(A6,A8);
hence thesis by A5,A1,A16;
end;
end;
theorem Th27:
for n be non empty Element of NAT, h,g,j be FinSequence of REAL n st
len h= len j & len g= len j
& (for i be Nat st i in dom j holds j/.i = h /.i - g/.i )
holds Sum j = Sum h - Sum g
proof
let n be non empty Element of NAT,
h,g,j be FinSequence of REAL n;
assume that
A1: len h = len j & len g = len j and
A2: for i be Nat st i in dom j holds j/.i = h/.i - g/.i;
A3:
dom j = Seg len j & dom g = Seg len g & dom h = Seg len h by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A4:for i be Nat st i in dom h holds h/.i = j/.i + g/.i
proof
let i be Nat;
reconsider ji = j/.i, hi = h/.i, gi = g/.i as Point of TOP-REAL n
by EUCLID:25;
assume i in dom h;
then ji = hi - gi by A1,A2,A3;
then ji + gi = hi by EUCLID:52;
hence thesis;
end;
j+g = j<++>g by INTEGR15:def 9;
then
A5:dom (j+g) = dom j /\ dom g by VALUED_2:def 45;
reconsider Sj = Sum j, Sh = Sum h, Sg = Sum g as Point of TOP-REAL n
by EUCLID:25;
for k being Element of NAT st k in dom h holds h.k = (j+g).k
proof
let k be Element of NAT;
assume A6: k in dom h;
then h/.k = j/.k + g/.k by A4;
then A7: h.k = j/.k + g/.k by A6,PARTFUN1:def 8;
(j+g)/.k = j/.k + g/.k by A6,A1,A3,A5,INTEGR15:21;
hence thesis by A7,A6,A1,A3,A5,PARTFUN1:def 8;
end;
then Sh = Sj + Sg by A1,A3,Th24,A5,PARTFUN1:34;
then Sh - Sg = Sj by EUCLID:52;
hence Sum h - Sum g = Sum j;
end;
theorem Th28:
for m,n be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
x,y be Element of REAL m holds
ex h be FinSequence of REAL m, g be FinSequence of REAL n st
len h = m+1 & len g = m &
(for i be Nat st i in dom h holds h/.i = (y| (m+1-'i))^(0*(i-'1))) &
(for i be Nat st i in dom g holds g/.i = f/.(x+h/.i) - f/.(x+h/.(i+1))) &
(for i be Nat, hi be Element of REAL m st
i in dom h & h/.i= hi holds |. hi .| <=|. y .|) &
f /.(x+y) - f/.x = Sum g
proof
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
x,y be Element of REAL m;
A1:len y = m by FINSEQ_2:153;
defpred H[Nat,set] means $2=(y| (m+1-'$1))^(0*($1-'1));
A2:for k be Nat st k in Seg(m+1) ex x being Element of REAL m st H[k,x]
proof
let k be Nat;
assume k in Seg(m+1);
then A3: 1 <= k & k <= m+1 by FINSEQ_1:3;
then k-1 >= 0 & m+1 - k >= 0 by XREAL_1:50;
then A4: m+1-'k = m+1-k & k-'1 = k-1 by XREAL_0:def 2;
set l1 = m+1-'k;
set l2 = k-'1;
m+1 <= m+k by A3,XREAL_1:8;
then l1 <= len y by A1,A4,XREAL_1:22;
then A5: len(y|l1) = l1 by FINSEQ_1:80;
len(0*l2) = l2 by FINSEQ_2:152;
then len((y|l1)^(0*l2)) = l1 + l2 by A5,FINSEQ_1:35;
then (y|l1)^(0*l2) is Element of (l1+l2)-tuples_on REAL by FINSEQ_2:153;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
consider h be FinSequence of REAL m such that
A6:dom h = Seg(m+1) &
for j being Nat st j in Seg(m+1) holds H[j,h.j] from FINSEQ_1:sch 5(A2);
A7:now let j be Nat;
assume A8: j in dom h;
then h/.j = h.j by PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence h/.j = (y| (m+1-'j))^(0*(j-'1)) by A8,A6;
end;
deffunc Z(Nat)=f/.(x+h/.$1);
consider z be FinSequence of REAL n such that
A9:len z = m+1 &
for j being Nat st j in dom z holds z.j = Z(j) from FINSEQ_2:sch 1;
A10:now let j be Nat;
assume A11:j in dom z;
then z/.j = z.j by PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence z/.j = f/.(x+h/.j) by A11,A9;
end;
deffunc G(Nat) = z/.$1 - z/.($1+1);
consider g be FinSequence of REAL n such that
A12:len g = m &
for j being Nat st j in dom g holds g.j = G(j) from FINSEQ_2:sch 1;
A13:now let j be Nat;
assume A14: j in dom g;
then g/.j = g.j by PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence g/.j = z/.j - z /.(j+1) by A14,A12;
end;
A15:1 <= m+1 by NAT_1:11;
A16:m+1-'1 = m+1-1 by NAT_1:11,XREAL_1:235;
1 in dom h by A6,A15;
then h/.1 = (y| (m+1-'1))^(0*(1-'1)) by A7;
then h/.1 = (y|m)^(0*0) by A16,XREAL_1:234;
then h/.1 = y^(0*0) by A1,FINSEQ_1:79;
then A17:h/.1 = y by FINSEQ_1:47;
A18:1 <= len z & len z <= m+1 by A9,NAT_1:14;
A19:m+1-'(len z) = m+1 - len z by A9,XREAL_1:235;
A20:len z -'1 = len z - 1 by A9,NAT_1:14,XREAL_1:235;
len z in dom h by A6,A18;
then h/.(len z) = (y|0)^(0*(len z -'1)) by A7,A19,A9;
then A21:h/.(len z) = 0*m by A20,A9,FINSEQ_1:47;
1 <= m+1 by NAT_1:11;
then 1 in Seg (m+1);
then 1 in dom z by A9,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A22:z/.1 = f/. (x+y) by A10,A17;
len z in Seg (m+1) by A9,FINSEQ_1:6;
then len z in dom z by A9,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then z/.(len z) = f/. (x+h/.(len z)) by A10;
then A23:z/.(len z) = f/.x by A21,EUCLID_4:1;
take h,g;
thus len h = m+1 & len g =m by A6,A12,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A24:now let i be Nat;
assume A25: i in dom g;
then A26:i in Seg m by A12,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
m <= m+1 by NAT_1:11;
then A27: Seg m c= Seg (m+1) by FINSEQ_1:7;
dom h= dom z by A6,A9,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A28: z/.i =f/. (x+h/.i) by A10,A27,A6,A26;
i in Seg m by A12,A25,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then 1 <= i & i <= m by FINSEQ_1:3;
then A29:i +1 <= m+1 by XREAL_1:8;
1 <= i+1 by NAT_1:11;
then i+1 in Seg (m+1) by A29;
then i+1 in dom z by A9,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then z/.(i+1) =f /. (x+h/.(i+1)) by A10;
hence g/.i = f /. (x+h/.i) - f /.(x+h/.(i+1)) by A13,A25,A28;
end;
for i be Nat, hi be Element of REAL m st
i in dom h & h/.i= hi holds |. hi .| <=|. y .|
proof
let i be Nat, hi be Element of REAL m;
assume i in dom h & h/.i = hi;
then A30:hi = (y| (m+1-'i))^(0*(i-'1)) by A7;
A31: sqr(0*(i-'1)) = (i-'1) |-> (0 qua Real)^2 by RVSUM_1:82;
A32:for j be Nat st j in Seg m holds (sqr hi).j <= (sqr y).j
proof
let j be Nat;
assume A33:j in Seg m;
len hi = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then A34: j in dom ((y| (m+1-'i))^(0*(i-'1))) by A33,FINSEQ_1:def 3,A30;
per cases by A34,FINSEQ_1:38;
suppose A35:j in dom (y| (m+1-'i));
then j in Seg (len (y| (m+1-'i))) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A36: j <= len (y| (m+1-'i)) by FINSEQ_1:3;
A37: len (y| (m+1-'i)) <= m+1-'i by FINSEQ_5:19;
(sqr hi).j=(sqrreal*hi).j by RVSUM_1:def 8
.=sqrreal.(((y| (m+1-'i))^(0*(i-'1))).j)
by A30,A34,FUNCT_1:23
.=sqrreal.((y| (m+1-'i)).j) by A35,FINSEQ_1:def 7
.=sqrreal.(y.j) by A37,A36,XXREAL_0:2,FINSEQ_3:121
.=(y.j)^2 by RVSUM_1:def 2
.=(sqr y).j by VALUED_1:11;
hence thesis;
end;
suppose ex k be Nat st k in dom (0*(i-'1)) & j=len (y| (m+1-'i)) + k;
then consider k be Nat such that
A38: k in dom (0*(i-'1)) & j=len (y| (m+1-'i)) + k;
k in Seg len (0*(i-'1)) by A38,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A39: k in Seg (i-'1) by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
A40: (sqr hi).j=(sqrreal*hi).j by RVSUM_1:def 8
.=sqrreal.(((y| (m+1-'i))^(0*(i-'1))).j)
by A30,A34,FUNCT_1:23
.= sqrreal.((0*(i-'1)).k) by A38,FINSEQ_1:def 7
.=((0*(i-'1)).k)^2 by RVSUM_1:def 2
.=0 by A31,A39,FINSEQ_2:71;
(sqr y).j=(y.j)^2 by VALUED_1:11
.=(y.j)*(y.j);
hence thesis by XREAL_1:65,A40;
end;
end;
0 <= Sum sqr hi by RVSUM_1:116;
hence |. hi .| <= |. y .| by A32,RVSUM_1:112,SQUARE_1:94;
end;
hence thesis by A7,A22,A23,A24,A9,A12,A13,Th26;
end;
theorem Th29:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL 1
ex f0 be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL st f = <>*f0
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL 1;
defpred P[set] means $1 in dom f;
deffunc F(set) = proj(1,1).(f/.$1);
A1:for x be set st P[x] holds F(x) in REAL;
consider f0 be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL such that
A2: (for x be set holds x in dom f0 iff x in REAL m & P[x]) &
for x be set st x in dom f0 holds f0.x = F(x) from PARTFUN1:sch 3(A1);
take f0;
for x be set st x in dom f holds x in dom f0 by A2;
then A3:dom f c= dom f0 by TARSKI:def 3;
for x be set st x in dom f0 holds x in dom f by A2;
then A4:dom f0 c= dom f by TARSKI:def 3;
then A5:dom f = dom f0 by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
A6:rng f0 c= dom(proj(1,1) qua Function") by PDIFF_1:2;
then A7:dom(proj(1,1) qua Function" * f0) = dom f0 by RELAT_1:46;
for x be Element of REAL m st x in dom (<>*f0) holds (<>*f0).x = f.x
proof
let x be Element of REAL m;
assume A8: x in dom(<>*f0);
then (<>*f0).x = (proj(1,1) qua Function").(f0.x) by FUNCT_1:22;
then A9: (<>*f0).x = (proj(1,1) qua Function").(proj(1,1).(f/.x)) by A8,
A7,A2;
f/.x is Element of 1-tuples_on REAL;
then consider x0 be Element of REAL such that
A10: f/.x = <*x0*> by FINSEQ_2:117;
proj(1,1).(f/.x) = x0 by A10,PDIFF_1:1;
then (<>*f0).x = f/.x by A9,A10,PDIFF_1:1;
hence thesis by A7,A4,A8,PARTFUN1:def 8;
end;
hence f = <>*f0 by A6,A5,RELAT_1:46,PARTFUN1:34;
end;
theorem Th30:
for m,n be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
f0 be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n,
x be Element of REAL m,
x0 be Element of REAL-NS m st
x in dom f & x=x0 & f=f0 holds f/.x = f0/.x0
proof
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
f0 be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n,
x be Element of REAL m, x0 be Element of REAL-NS m;
assume A1: x in dom f & x=x0 & f=f0;
then f/.x = f0.x0 by PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence f/.x = f0/.x0 by PARTFUN1:def 8,A1;
end;
definition
let m be non empty Element of NAT;
let X be Subset of REAL m;
attr X is open means :Def3:
ex X0 be Subset of REAL-NS m st X0=X & X0 is open;
end;
theorem Th31:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, X be Subset of REAL m holds X is open iff
for x be Element of REAL m st x in X holds
ex r be Real st r>0 & {y where y is Element of REAL m: |. y-x .| < r} c= X
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
X be Subset of REAL m;
hereby assume X is open;
then consider VV0 be Subset of REAL-NS m such that
A1: X = VV0 & VV0 is open by Def3;
let x be Element of REAL m;
assume A2: x in X;
reconsider V0=VV0 as Subset of TopSpaceNorm (REAL-NS m);
reconsider v0=x as Point of (REAL-NS m ) by REAL_NS1:def 4;
V0 is open by A1,NORMSP_2:16;
then consider d0 be Real such that
A3: d0 >0 & {w where w is Point of (REAL-NS m ): ||.v0-w.|| < d0} c= V0
by A2,A1,NORMSP_2:7;
take d0;
thus 0 < d0 by A3;
thus {y where y is Element of REAL m: |. y-x .| < d0} c= X
proof
let z be set;
assume z in {y where y is Element of REAL m: |. y-x .| < d0};
then consider y be Element of REAL m such that
A4: z=y & |. y-x .| < d0;
reconsider w=y as Point of REAL-NS m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
|. y-x .| = ||. w-v0 .|| by REAL_NS1:1,5;
then ||. v0-w .|| < d0 by A4,NORMSP_1:11;
then
w in {w1 where w1 is Point of REAL-NS m : ||.v0-w1.|| < d0};
hence z in X by A4,A1,A3;
end;
end;
assume
A5:for x be Element of REAL m st x in X holds ex r be Real st r>0
& {y where y is Element of REAL m: |. y-x .| < r} c= X;
reconsider VV0=X as Subset of REAL-NS m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
reconsider V0=VV0 as Subset of TopSpaceNorm (REAL-NS m);
for v be Point of REAL-NS m st v in V0 holds ex r be Real st r>0 &
{w where w is Point of REAL-NS m : ||.v-w.|| < r} c= V0
proof
let v be Point of REAL-NS m;
assume A6: v in V0;
reconsider x=v as Element of REAL m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
consider d0 be Real such that
A7: d0 >0 & {y where y is Element of REAL m: |. y-x .| < d0 } c= X by A5,A6;
take d0;
thus 0 < d0 by A7;
thus {w where w is Point of REAL-NS m : ||.v-w.|| < d0} c= V0
proof
let z be set;
assume z in {w where w is Point of REAL-NS m : ||.v-w.|| < d0};
then consider w be Point of REAL-NS m such that
A8: z=w & ||. v-w .|| < d0;
reconsider y=w as Element of REAL m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
|. y-x .| = ||. w-v .|| by REAL_NS1:1,5;
then |. y-x .| < d0 by A8,NORMSP_1:11;
then y in {t where t is Element of REAL m: |. t-x .| < d0};
hence z in V0 by A8,A7;
end;
end;
then V0 is open by NORMSP_2:7;
then VV0 is open by NORMSP_2:16;
hence X is open by Def3;
end;
definition
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT;
let i be Element of NAT;
let f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n;
let X be set;
pred f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i means :Def4:
X c=dom f & for x be
Element of REAL m st x in X holds f|X is_partial_differentiable_in x,i;
end;
theorem Th32:
for m,n be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n st
f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i holds X is Subset of REAL m
proof
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n;
assume f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i;
then X c=dom f by Def4;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_1:1;
end;
theorem Th33:
for m,n be non empty Element of NAT, i be Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
g be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n,
Z be set st
f=g holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i
iff
g is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i
proof
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT,
i be Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
g be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n,
Z be set;
assume A1: f=g;
hereby assume A2: f is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i;
then A3: Z c=dom f & for x be Element of REAL m st x in Z holds
f|Z is_partial_differentiable_in x,i by Def4;
now let y be Point of REAL-NS m;
assume A4: y in Z;
reconsider x=y as Element of REAL m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
f|Z is_partial_differentiable_in x,i by A2,A4,Def4;
then ex gZ be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n, y be Point of REAL-NS m
st f|Z=gZ & x=y & gZ is_partial_differentiable_in y,i by
PDIFF_1:def 13;
hence g|Z is_partial_differentiable_in y,i by A1;
end;
hence g is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i by A1,A3,PDIFF_1:def 19;
end;
assume A5: g is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i;
then A6:Z c=dom g & for y be Point of REAL-NS m st y in Z holds
g|Z is_partial_differentiable_in y,i by PDIFF_1:def 19;
now let x be Element of REAL m;
assume A7:x in Z;
reconsider y=x as Point of REAL-NS m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
g|Z is_partial_differentiable_in y,i by A5,A7,PDIFF_1:def 19;
hence f|Z is_partial_differentiable_in x,i by A1,PDIFF_1:def 13;
end;
hence f is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i by A1,A6,Def4;
end;
theorem Th34:
for m,n be non empty Element of NAT, i be Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
Z be Subset of REAL m
st Z is open & 1 <= i & i <= m holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i
iff
Z c=dom f &
for x be Element of REAL m st x in Z holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i
proof
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT,
i be Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
Z be Subset of REAL m;
assume A1: Z is open & 1 <= i & i <= m;
then consider Z0 be Subset of REAL-NS m such that
A2: Z=Z0 & Z0 is open by Def3;
the carrier of REAL-NS m = REAL m &
the carrier of REAL-NS n = REAL n by REAL_NS1:def 4;
then reconsider g=f as PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n;
hereby assume f is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i;
then A3: g is_partial_differentiable_on Z0,i by A2,Th33;
hence Z c=dom f by A1,A2,Th8;
thus for x be Element of REAL m st x in Z
holds f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i
proof
let x be Element of REAL m;
assume A4: x in Z;
reconsider y=x as Point of REAL-NS m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
g is_partial_differentiable_in y,i by A2,A3,A4,A1,Th8;
hence f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i by PDIFF_1:def 13;
end;
end;
assume A5: Z c=dom f & for x be Element of REAL m st x in Z
holds f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i;
now let y be Point of REAL-NS m;
assume A6: y in Z0;
reconsider x=y as Element of REAL m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i by A2,A6,A5;
then ex gZ be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n, y be Point of REAL-NS m
st f=gZ & x=y & gZ is_partial_differentiable_in y,i by PDIFF_1:def 13;
hence g is_partial_differentiable_in y,i;
end;
then g is_partial_differentiable_on Z0,i by A1,Th8,A2,A5;
hence f is_partial_differentiable_on Z,i by Th33,A2;
end;
definition
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT;
let i be Element of NAT;
let f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n;
let X;
assume A1: f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i;
func f `partial|(X,i) -> PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n means :Def5:
dom it = X &
for x be Element of REAL m st x in X holds it/.x = partdiff(f,x,i);
existence
proof
deffunc F(Element of REAL m) = partdiff(f,$1,i);
defpred P[Element of REAL m] means $1 in X;
consider F being PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n such that
A2: (for x be Element of REAL m holds x in dom F iff P[x])
& for x be Element of REAL m st x in dom F holds F.x = F(x)
from SEQ_1:sch 3;
take F;
now A3: X is Subset of REAL m by A1,Th32;
let y be set;
assume y in X;
hence y in dom F by A2,A3;
end;
then A4:X c= dom F by TARSKI:def 3;
for y be set st y in dom F holds y in X by A2;
then dom F c= X by TARSKI:def 3;
hence dom F = X by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
hereby let x be Element of REAL m;
assume x in X;
then A5: x in dom F by A2;
then F.x = partdiff(f,x,i) by A2;
hence F/.x = partdiff(f,x,i) by A5,PARTFUN1:def 8;
end;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let F,G be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n;
assume that
A6: dom F = X and
A7: for x be Element of REAL m st x in X holds F/.x = partdiff(f,x,i) and
A8: dom G = X and
A9: for x be Element of REAL m st x in X holds G/.x = partdiff(f,x,i);
now let x be Element of REAL m;
assume A10: x in dom F;
then F/.x = partdiff(f,x,i) by A6,A7;
hence F/.x=G/.x by A6,A9,A10;
end;
hence thesis by A6,A8,PARTFUN2:3;
end;
end;
definition
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT;
let f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n;
let x0 be Element of REAL m;
pred f is_continuous_in x0 means :Def6:
ex y0 be Point of REAL-NS m, g be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n st
x0=y0 & f=g & g is_continuous_in y0;
end;
theorem Th35:
for m,n be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
g be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n,
x be Element of REAL m,
y be Point of REAL-NS m
st f=g & x=y holds
f is_continuous_in x iff g is_continuous_in y
proof
let m,n be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
g be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n,
x be Element of REAL m,
y be Point of REAL-NS m;
assume A1: f=g & x=y;
hereby assume f is_continuous_in x; then
ex y0 be Point of REAL-NS m, g be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS n st
x=y0 & f=g & g is_continuous_in y0 by Def6;
hence g is_continuous_in y by A1;
end;
assume g is_continuous_in y;
hence f is_continuous_in x by Def6,A1;
end;
theorem
for m,n be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL n,
x0 be Element of REAL m holds
f is_continuous_in x0
iff
(x0 in dom f &
for r be Real st 0^(x/^i) by A1,A2,FINSEQ_7:def 1;
A5:dom reproj(i,x)=REAL by PDIFF_1:def 5
.=dom reproj(i,y) by PDIFF_1:def 5;
for r be set st r in dom reproj(i,x) holds reproj(i,x).r=reproj(i,y).r
proof
let r be set;
assume A6:r in dom reproj(i,x);
A7:i-'1 <= len y & i-'1 <= len x by A1,A3,NAT_D:44;
reconsider r1 = r as Real by A6;
reproj(i,x).r = Replace(x,i,r1) by PDIFF_1:def 5;
then A8:reproj(i,x).r = (x| (i-'1))^<*r1*>^(x/^i) by A1,A3
,FINSEQ_7:def 1;
reproj(i,y).r = Replace(y,i,r1) by PDIFF_1:def 5;
then A9:reproj(i,y).r = (y| (i-'1))^<*r1*>^(y/^i) by A1,A3
,FINSEQ_7:def 1;
A10:dom (y| (i-'1)) = Seg (i-'1) by A7,FINSEQ_1:21;
then A11:dom (y| (i-'1)) = dom (x| (i-'1)) by A7,FINSEQ_1:21;
A12:for n be Nat st n in dom (y| (i-'1)) holds (y| (i-'1))/.n = (x| (i-'1))/.n
proof
let n be Nat;
assume A13:n in dom (y| (i-'1));
then n in Seg (len (x| (i-'1))) by A7,FINSEQ_1:21,A10;
then A14: n <= len (x| (i-'1)) by FINSEQ_1:3;
A15: len (x| (i-'1)) <= i-'1 by FINSEQ_5:19;
A16: 1 <= n & n <= len (x| (i-'1)) by A13,A11,FINSEQ_3:27;
(y| (i-'1))/.n=(y| (i-'1)).n by A13,PARTFUN1:def 8
.=((x| (i-'1))^<*xi*>^(x/^i)).n by A4, A15,A14,XXREAL_0:2
,FINSEQ_3:121
.=((x| (i-'1))^(<*xi*>^(x/^i))).n by FINSEQ_1:45
.=(x| (i-'1)).n by A16,FINSEQ_1:85
.=(x| (i-'1))/.n by A13,A11,PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence thesis;
end;
A17: len (y/^i)=len y-'i & len (x/^i)=len x-'i by RFINSEQ:42;
for n be Nat st 1 <= n & n <= len (y/^i) holds (y/^i).n = (x/^i).n
proof
let n be Nat;
assume A18:1<=n & n<=len (y/^i);
then A19: n in dom (y/^i) & n in dom (x/^i) by A17,A3,FINSEQ_3:27;
A20: len(x| (i-'1)) = i -'1 by A1,A3,NAT_D:44,FINSEQ_1:80;
A21: len <*xi*> = 1 by FINSEQ_1:56;
i - 1 >= 0 by A1,XREAL_1:50;
then i-'1 = i-1 by XREAL_0:def 2;
then A22: len ((x| (i-'1))^<*xi*>) = i -1+1 by A20,A21,FINSEQ_1:35
.=i;
(y/^i).n = y.(i+n) by A19,FINSEQ_7:4
.= (x/^i).n by A18, A17,A3, A4,A22,FINSEQ_1:86;
hence thesis;
end;
then (y/^i)=(x/^i) by A17,A3,FINSEQ_1:18;
hence thesis by A8,A9, A11,A12,FINSEQ_5:13;
end;
hence thesis by A5,FUNCT_1:9;
end;
theorem Th41:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL,
g be PartFunc of REAL ,REAL,
x,y be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT,
xi be Real st
1 <=i & i <= m & y=reproj(i,x).xi & g=f*reproj(i,x)
holds diff(g,xi) = partdiff(f,y,i)
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL,
g be PartFunc of REAL ,REAL,
x,y be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT,
xi be Real;
assume A1: 1 <=i & i <= m & y=reproj(i,x).xi & g=f*reproj(i,x);
then reproj(i,x)=reproj(i,y) & proj(i,m).y=xi by Th39,Th40;
hence partdiff(f,y,i) = diff(g,xi) by A1;
end;
theorem Th42:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL, p,q be Real,
x be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT
st 1 <= i & i <= m
& p < q
& (for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds reproj(i,x).h in dom f)
& (for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in (reproj(i,x).h),i)
holds
ex r be Real, y be Element of REAL m st
r in ]. p,q .[ & y = reproj(i,x).r
& f/.(reproj(i,x).q) - f/.(reproj(i,x).p) = (q-p) * partdiff(f,y,i)
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL,
p,q be Real,
x be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT;
assume A1:
1 <=i & i <= m & p < q
& (for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds reproj(i,x).h in dom f)
& (for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in (reproj(i,x).h),i);
set g=f*reproj(i,x);
now let h be set;
assume A2: h in [. p,q .];
then reconsider h1=h as Element of REAL;
A3: dom (reproj(i,x)) = REAL by PDIFF_1:def 5;
reproj(i,x).h1 in dom f by A1,A2;
hence h in dom g by A3,FUNCT_1:21;
end;
then A4:[. p,q .] c= dom g by TARSKI:def 3;
A5:now let x0 be Real;
assume A6: x0 in [. p,q .];
set y=reproj(i,x).x0;
A7: proj(i,m).y=x0 by Th39,A1;
f is_partial_differentiable_in y,i by A1,A6;
then f*reproj(i,y) is_differentiable_in x0 by A7,PDIFF_1:def 11;
hence g is_differentiable_in x0 by Th40,A1;
end;
now let z be set;
assume z in ].p,q.[;
then ex z1 be Real st z=z1 & p < z1 & z1 < q;
hence z in [. p,q .];
end;
then A8:
].p,q.[ c= [. p,q .] by TARSKI:def 3;
then A9:
].p,q.[ c= dom g by A4,XBOOLE_1:1;
for x be Real st x in ].p,q.[ holds g is_differentiable_in x by A5,A8;
then A10:g is_differentiable_on ].p,q.[ by A9,FDIFF_1:16;
now let x0,r be real number;
assume A11: x0 in [. p,q .] & 0 < r;
then g is_continuous_in x0 by A5,FDIFF_1:32;
then consider s be real number such that
A12: 0~~ 0 by A1;
then A14:diff(g,r)*(q-p) = g.q-g.p by A13,XCMPLX_1:88;
A15:p in {s where s is Real: p<=s & s<=q} by A1;
then A16:f/.(reproj(i,x).p) = f.(reproj(i,x).p) by A1,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= g.p by A4,A15,FUNCT_1:22;
A17:q in {s where s is Real: p<=s & s<=q} by A1;
then A18:f/.(reproj(i,x).q) = f.(reproj(i,x).q) by A1,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= g.q by A4,A17,FUNCT_1:22;
reconsider y =reproj(i,x).r as Element of REAL m;
diff(g,r) = partdiff(f,y,i) by A1,Th41;
hence thesis by A13,A14,A16,A18;
end;
theorem Th43:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL, p,q be Real,
x be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT
st 1 <=i & i <= m
& p <= q
& (for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds reproj(i,x).h in dom f)
& (for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in (reproj(i,x).h),i) holds
ex r be Real, y be Element of REAL m st
r in [. p,q .] & y = reproj(i,x).r
& f/.(reproj(i,x).q) - f/.(reproj(i,x).p) = (q-p) * partdiff(f,y,i)
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL,
p,q be Real,
x be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT;
assume
A1: 1 <=i & i <= m & p <= q
& (for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds reproj(i,x).h in dom f)
& (for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in (reproj(i,x).h),i);
per cases;
suppose A2: p=q;
then A3: p in [. p,q .];
reconsider y = reproj(i,x).p as Element of REAL m;
(q-p) * partdiff(f,y,i) = 0 by A2;
hence thesis by A3,A2;
end;
suppose p <> q;
then p < q by A1,XXREAL_0:1;
then A4: ex r be Real, y be Element of REAL m st
r in ]. p,q .[ & y =reproj(i,x).r
& f/.(reproj(i,x).q) - f/.(reproj(i,x).p)
= (q-p) * partdiff(f,y,i) by Th42,A1;
]. p,q .[ c= [. p,q .] by XXREAL_1:25;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
end;
theorem Th44:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, x,y,z,w be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT,
d,p,q,r be Real
st 1 <= i & i <= m & |. y-x .| < d & |. z-x .| < d
& p= proj(i,m).y & z=reproj(i,y).q
& r in [. p,q .] & w= reproj(i,y).r
holds |. w-x .| < d
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
x,y,z,w be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT,
d,p,q,r be Real;
assume that
A1: 1 <= i & i <= m and
A2: |. y-x .| < d & |. z-x .| < d and
A3: p= proj(i,m).y & z=reproj(i,y).q and
A4: r in [. p,q .] and
A5: w= reproj(i,y).r;
set wx = w-x;
set yx = y-x;
set zx = z-x;
A6:
Sum sqr yx = |. yx .|^2 & Sum sqr wx = |. wx .|^2 & Sum sqr zx = |. zx .|^2
by TOPREAL9:5;
A7:proj(i,m).z = q & proj(i,m).w = r by A1,A3,A5,Th39;
A8:p <= r & r <= q by A4,XXREAL_1:1;
i in Seg m by A1;
then A9:i in dom yx & i in dom wx & i in dom zx by FINSEQ_1:110;
set x1 = x;
A10:
for l be Element of NAT st l in Seg m & l <> i holds (sqr yx).l = (sqr wx).l
proof
let l be Element of NAT;
assume A11: l in Seg m & l <> i;
then A12: l in dom yx & l in dom wx & l in dom y by FINSEQ_1:110;
then A13: l in Seg len y by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A14: 1 <= l & l <= len y by FINSEQ_1:3;
l in Seg len y & l in Seg len Replace(y,i,r) by FINSEQ_7:7,A13;
then A15: l in dom y & l in dom Replace(y,i,r) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
sqr yx = sqrreal*yx & sqr wx = sqrreal*wx by RVSUM_1:def 8;
then (sqr yx).l = sqrreal.(yx.l) &
(sqr wx).l = sqrreal.(wx.l) by A12,FUNCT_1:23;
then (sqr yx).l = (yx.l)^2 & (sqr wx).l = (wx.l)^2 by RVSUM_1:def 2;
then A16: (sqr yx).l = (y.l - x1.l)^2 & (sqr wx).l = (w.l - x1.l)^2
by A12,VALUED_1:13;
w.l = Replace(y,i,r).l by A5,PDIFF_1:def 5;
then w.l = Replace(y,i,r)/.l by A15,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then w.l = y/.l by A11,A14,FINSEQ_7:12;
hence thesis by A15,PARTFUN1:def 8,A16;
end;
A17:
for l be Element of NAT st l in Seg m & l <> i holds (sqr zx).l = (sqr wx).l
proof
let l be Element of NAT;
assume A18: l in Seg m & l <> i;
then A19: l in dom zx & l in dom wx & l in dom z by FINSEQ_1:110;
then A20: l in Seg len z by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A21: 1 <= l & l <= len z by FINSEQ_1:3;
l in Seg len z & l in Seg len Replace(z,i,r) by FINSEQ_7:7,A20;
then A22: l in dom z & l in dom Replace(z,i,r) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
sqr zx = sqrreal*zx & sqr wx = sqrreal*wx by RVSUM_1:def 8;
then (sqr zx).l = sqrreal.(zx.l) &
(sqr wx).l = sqrreal.(wx.l) by A19,FUNCT_1:23;
then (sqr zx).l = (zx.l)^2 & (sqr wx).l = (wx.l)^2 by RVSUM_1:def 2;
then A23: (sqr zx).l = (z.l - x1.l)^2 & (sqr wx).l = (w.l - x1.l)^2
by A19,VALUED_1:13;
w.l = (reproj(i,z).r).l by A1,A3,Th40,A5;
then w.l = Replace(z,i,r).l by PDIFF_1:def 5;
then w.l = Replace(z,i,r)/.l by A22,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then w.l = z/.l by A18,A21,FINSEQ_7:12;
hence thesis by A22,PARTFUN1:def 8,A23;
end;
A24:now assume A25: |. w - x .| > |. y - x .| & |. w - x .| > |. z - x .|;
A26: now assume A27: (sqr wx).i <= (sqr yx).i;
A28: len sqr wx = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18 .= len sqr yx by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
for l be Element of NAT st l in dom sqr wx holds (sqr wx).l <= (sqr yx).l
proof
let l be Element of NAT;
assume l in dom sqr wx;
then A29: l in Seg m by FINSEQ_1:110;
per cases;
suppose l = i;
hence (sqr wx).l <= (sqr yx).l by A27;
end;
suppose l <> i;
hence (sqr wx).l <= (sqr yx).l by A29,A10;
end;
end;
hence contradiction by A28,INTEGRA5:3,A6,A25,SQUARE_1:78;
end;
A30: now assume A31: (sqr wx).i <= (sqr zx).i;
A32: len sqr wx = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18 .= len sqr zx by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
for l be Element of NAT st l in dom sqr wx holds (sqr wx).l <= (sqr zx).l
proof
let l be Element of NAT;
assume l in dom sqr wx;
then A33: l in Seg m by FINSEQ_1:110;
per cases;
suppose l = i;
hence (sqr wx).l <= (sqr zx).l by A31;
end;
suppose l <> i;
hence (sqr wx).l <= (sqr zx).l by A33,A17;
end;
end;
hence contradiction by A32,INTEGRA5:3,A6,A25,SQUARE_1:78;
end;
sqr yx = sqrreal*yx & sqr wx = sqrreal*wx &
sqr zx = sqrreal*zx by RVSUM_1:def 8;
then (sqr yx).i = sqrreal.(yx.i) & (sqr wx).i = sqrreal.(wx.i) &
(sqr zx).i = sqrreal.(zx.i) by A9,FUNCT_1:23;
then A34: (sqr yx).i = (yx.i)^2 & (sqr wx).i = (wx.i)^2 &
(sqr zx).i = (zx.i)^2 by RVSUM_1:def 2;
y.i = p & w.i = r & z.i = q by PDIFF_1:def 1,A3,A7;
then A35: (sqr yx).i = (p - x1.i)^2 & (sqr wx).i = (r - x1.i)^2 &
(sqr zx).i = (q - x1.i)^2 by A34,A9,VALUED_1:13;
A36: p <= q by A8,XXREAL_0:2;
per cases;
suppose x1.i < p;
then x1.i < r & x1.i < q by A8,A36,XXREAL_0:2;
then q - x1.i > 0 & r - x1.i > 0 by XREAL_1:52;
then q - x1.i < r - x1.i by A35, A30,SQUARE_1:77;
hence contradiction by XREAL_1:15,A8;
end;
suppose A37: p <= x1.i & x1.i <= r;
then x1.i <= q by A8,XXREAL_0:2;
then r - x1.i >= 0 & q - x1.i >= 0 by A37,XREAL_1:50;
then q - x1.i < r - x1.i by A35, A30,SQUARE_1:77;
hence contradiction by XREAL_1:15,A8;
end;
suppose A38: r < x1.i & x1.i <= q;
then p < x1.i by A8,XXREAL_0:2;
then A39: x1.i - p >= 0 & x1.i - r >= 0 by A38,XREAL_1:50;
(p-x1.i)^2 = (x1.i-p)^2 & (r-x1.i)^2 = (x1.i-r)^2;
then x1.i - p < x1.i - r by A35, A26 ,A39,SQUARE_1:77;
hence contradiction by XREAL_1:15,A8;
end;
suppose q < x1.i;
then r < x1.i by A8,XXREAL_0:2;
then p < x1.i & r < x1.i by A8,XXREAL_0:2;
then A40: x1.i - r >= 0 & x1.i - p >= 0 by XREAL_1:50;
(p-x1.i)^2 = (x1.i-p)^2 & (r-x1.i)^2 = (x1.i-r)^2;
then x1.i - p < x1.i - r by A35, A26 ,A40,SQUARE_1:77;
hence contradiction by XREAL_1:15,A8;
end;
end;
per cases by A24;
suppose |. w - x .| <= |. y - x .|;
hence |. w-x .| < d by A2,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
suppose |. w - x .| <= |. z - x .|;
hence |. w-x .| < d by A2,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
end;
theorem Th45:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL,
X be Subset of REAL m,
x,y,z be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT,
d,p,q be Real st 1 <= i & i <= m &
X is open & x in X &
|. y-x .| < d & |. z-x .| < d &
X c= dom f &
(for x be Element of REAL m st x in X holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i) &
0 < d &
(for z be Element of REAL m st |. z-x .| < d holds z in X) &
z = reproj(i,y).p & q = proj(i,m).y
holds
ex w be Element of REAL m st
|. w-x .| < d &
f is_partial_differentiable_in w,i &
f/.z - f/.y = (p-q)*partdiff(f,w,i)
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL,
X be Subset of REAL m,
x,y,z be Element of REAL m,
i be Element of NAT,
d,p,q be Real;
assume
A1: 1 <= i & i <= m & X is open & x in X &
|. y-x .| < d & |. z-x .| < d & X c= dom f &
(for x be Element of REAL m st x in X holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i) &
0 < d &
(for z be Element of REAL m st |. z-x .| < d holds z in X) &
z = reproj(i,y).p &
q = proj(i,m).y;
then A2:p = proj(i,m).z by Th39;
reproj(i,y).q = reproj(i,y).(y.i) by A1,PDIFF_1:def 1;
then reproj(i,y).q = Replace(y,i,y.i) by PDIFF_1:def 5;
then A3:y = reproj(i,y).q by FUNCT_7:37;
per cases;
suppose A4: q <= p;
A5:for h be Real st h in [.q,p.] holds reproj(i,y).h in X
proof
let h be Real;
assume h in [. q,p .];
then |. reproj(i,y).h - x .| < d by A1,Th44;
hence reproj(i,y).h in X by A1;
end;
A6: now let h be Real;
assume h in [. q,p .];
then reproj(i,y).h in X by A5;
hence reproj(i,y).h in dom f by A1;
end;
now let h be Real;
assume h in [. q,p .];
then reproj(i,y).h in X by A5;
hence f is_partial_differentiable_in (reproj(i,y).h),i by A1;
end;
then consider r be Real, w be Element of REAL m such that
A7: r in [. q,p .] & w = reproj(i,y).r &
f/.(reproj(i,y).p) - f/.(reproj(i,y).q)
= (p-q)*partdiff(f,w,i) by Th43,A1,A4,A6;
A8: |. w-x .| < d by A7,A1,Th44;
then f is_partial_differentiable_in w,i by A1;
hence thesis by A7,A3,A1,A8;
end;
suppose A9: p < q;
A10: dom y = Seg m by FINSEQ_1:110;
then A11: i in dom y & len y = m by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then len Replace(y,i,p) = m by FINSEQ_7:7;
then A12: dom y = dom Replace(y,i,p) by A10,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
z = Replace(y,i,p) by A1,PDIFF_1:def 5;
then z.i = Replace(y,i,p)/.i by A11,A12,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then A13: z.i = p by A1,A11,FINSEQ_7:10;
A14: y = reproj(i,z).q by A1,Th40,A3;
A15:for h be Real st h in [.p,q.] holds reproj(i,z).h in X
proof
let h be Real;
assume h in [. p,q .];
then |. reproj(i,z).h - x .| < d by A2,A14,A1,Th44;
hence reproj(i,z).h in X by A1;
end;
A16:for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds reproj(i,z).h in dom f
proof
let h be Real;
assume h in [. p,q .];
then reproj(i,z).h in X by A15;
hence reproj(i,z).h in dom f by A1;
end;
for h be Real st h in [. p,q .] holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in (reproj(i,z).h),i
proof
let h be Real;
assume h in [. p,q .];
then reproj(i,z).h in X by A15;
hence f is_partial_differentiable_in (reproj(i,z).h),i by A1;
end;
then consider r be Real, w be Element of REAL m such that
A17: r in [. p,q .] & w = reproj(i,z).r &
f/.(reproj(i,z).q) - f/.(reproj(i,z).p)
= (q-p)*partdiff(f,w,i) by Th43,A1, A9,A16;
A18: |. w-x .| < d by A2,A14,A17,A1,Th44;
then A19: f is_partial_differentiable_in w,i by A1;
reproj(i,z).p = Replace(z,i,z.i) by A13,PDIFF_1:def 5;
then f/.y - f/.z = (q-p)*partdiff(f,w,i) by FUNCT_7:37,A14,A17;
then f/.z - f/.y = (p-q)*partdiff(f,w,i);
hence thesis by A18,A19;
end;
end;
theorem Th46:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, h be FinSequence of REAL m,
y,x be Element of REAL m,
j be Element of NAT
st len h = m+1 & 1 <= j & j <= m &
(for i be Nat st i in dom h holds h/.i=(y| (m+1-'i))^(0*(i-'1)))
holds x + h/.j = reproj(m+1-'j,(x+h/.(j+1))).(proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+y))
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
h be FinSequence of REAL m,
y,x be Element of REAL m,
j be Element of NAT such that
A1: len h = m+1 & 1 <= j & j <= m &
(for i be Nat st i in dom h holds h/.i=(y| (m+1-'i))^(0*(i-'1)));
reconsider mj=m-j as Element of NAT by NAT_1:21,A1;
m<=m+1 by NAT_1:11;
then A2: Seg m c= Seg (m+1) by FINSEQ_1:7;
A3: j in Seg m by A1;
then j in Seg (m+1) by A2;
then j in dom h by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A4: h/.j=(y| (m+1-'j))^(0*(j-'1)) by A1;
j+1 in Seg (m+1) by A3,FINSEQ_1:81;
then j+1 in dom h by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A5: h/.(j+1)=(y| (m+1-'(j+1)))^(0*((j+1)-'1)) by A1;
m+1-'j = m-'j+1 by A1,NAT_D:38;
then A6: 1 <= m+1-'j by NAT_1:11;
A7: 1-j <= 0 by A1,XREAL_1:49;
m+1-'j = m+1-j by A1,NAT_D:37
.= m+(1-j);
then A8: m+1-'j <= m by A7,XREAL_1:34;
then m+1-'j in Seg m by A6;
then A9: m+1-'j in dom (x+y) & m+1-'j in dom y & m+1-'j in dom x by
FINSEQ_1:110;
m+1-'j <= len y by A8,FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then A10: len (y| (m+1-'j)) = m+1-'j by FINSEQ_1:80;
j+1 <= m+1 by A1,XREAL_1:8;
then A11: m+1-'(j+1) = m+1-(j+1) by XREAL_1:235;
then m+1-'(j+1) = m-j & j >= 0;
then m+1-'(j+1) <= m by XREAL_1:45;
then m+1-'(j+1) <= len y by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then A12: len (y| (m+1-'(j+1))) = m+1-'(j+1) by FINSEQ_1:80;
proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+y) = (x+y).(m+1-'j) by PDIFF_1:def 1
.= x .(m+1-'j) + y.(m+1-'j) by VALUED_1:def 1,A9
.= x .(m+1-'j) + y/.(m+1-'j) by A9,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= x /.(m+1-'j) + y/.(m+1-'j) by A9,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then A13: reproj(m+1-'j,(x+h/.(j+1))).(proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+y)) =
Replace(x+h/.(j+1),m+1-'j,x/.(m+1-'j) + y/.(m+1-'j)) by
PDIFF_1:def 5;
reproj(m+1-'j,(x+h/.(j+1)))/.(proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+y)) is Element of REAL m;
then reconsider rep=reproj(m+1-'j,(x+h/.(j+1)))/.(proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+y))
as FinSequence of REAL;
reconsider hj=h/.j as Element of REAL m;
reconsider hj1=h/.(j+1) as Element of REAL m;
A14: len (x + hj) = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18 .= len rep by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
now
let n be Nat;
assume A15: 1<=n & n<=len rep;
then A16: 1 <= n & n <= m by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then n in Seg m by FINSEQ_1:3;
then A17: n in Seg len (x + h/.j) & n in Seg len (x + h/.(j+1)) &
n in Seg len x & n in Seg len y by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then A18: n in dom (x + h/.j) & n in dom (x+h/.(j+1)) & n in dom rep &
n in dom x & n in dom y by A14,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A19: (x + h/.j).n = x .n + hj.n
& (x + h/.(j+1)).n = x .n + hj1 .n by VALUED_1:def 1;
per cases by XXREAL_0:1;
suppose
A20: n < m+1-'j;
then A21: n in Seg (m+1-'j) by A15,FINSEQ_1:3;
A22: hj.n = (y | Seg (m+1-'j)).n by A4,A10,A15,A20,FINSEQ_1:85
.= y.n by A21,FUNCT_1:72;
m <= m+1 by NAT_1:11;
then n < m+1-j by A1,XXREAL_0:2,A20,XREAL_1:235;
then n < mj + 1;
then A23: n <= mj by NAT_1:13;
then A24: n in Seg mj by A15,FINSEQ_1:3;
A25: hj1.n = (y | Seg mj).n by A11,A23,A12,A5,A15,FINSEQ_1:85
.= y.n by A24,FUNCT_1:72;
n<>m+1-'j & n <= len (x + h/.(j+1)) by A20,A17,FINSEQ_1:3;
then rep/.n = (x + h/.(j+1))/.n by A13,FINSEQ_7:12,A15;
then rep.n = (x + h/.(j+1))/.n by A18,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= (x + h/.(j+1)).n by A18,PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence (x + h/.j).n = rep.n by A19,A25,A22;
end;
suppose
A26: n = m+1-'j;
then A27: n in Seg (m+1-'j) by A15;
A28: hj.n = (y | Seg (m+1-'j)).n by A4,A10,A15,A26,FINSEQ_1:85
.= y.n by A27,FUNCT_1:72;
n <= len (x + h/.(j+1)) by A17,FINSEQ_1:3;
then rep/.n = x/.n + y/.n by A26,A13,FINSEQ_7:10,A15;
then A29: rep.n = x/.n + y/.n by A18,PARTFUN1:def 8;
thus (x + h/.j).n = x/.n + y.n by A18,PARTFUN1:def 8,A19,A28
.= rep.n by A29,A18,PARTFUN1:def 8;
end;
suppose
A30: n > m+1-'j;
then reconsider nm=n-(m+1-'j) as Element of NAT by NAT_1:21;
nm > 0 by A30,XREAL_1:52;
then A31: 1 <= nm by NAT_1:14;
A32: m <= m+1 by NAT_1:11;
n-m <= m-m by A16,XREAL_1:11;
then (n-m)+(j-1)<= (0 qua real number)+(j-1) by XREAL_1:8;
then n-(m+1-j) <= j-1;
then nm <= j-1 by A32,A1,XXREAL_0:2,XREAL_1:235;
then nm <= j-'1 by A1,XREAL_1:235;
then A33: nm in Seg (j-'1) by A31;
n <= len hj by A16,FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then A34: hj.n = (0*(j-'1)).(nm) by A4,A10,FINSEQ_1:37,A30
.= 0 by FINSEQ_2:71,A33;
A35: len y = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
j+1 <= m+1 by A1,XREAL_1:8;
then m+1-'(j+1) = m+1-(j+1) by XREAL_1:235
.= m-j .= m-'j by A1,XREAL_1:235;
then A36: len (y| (m+1-'(j+1))) = m-'j by A35,NAT_D:35,FINSEQ_1:80;
n > m+1-j by A30, A32,A1,XXREAL_0:2,XREAL_1:235;
then
n > m-j+1 & m-j+1 > m-j+(0 qua real number) by XREAL_1:10;
then n > m-j by XXREAL_0:2;
then A37: n > m-'j by A1,XREAL_1:235;
then reconsider nmj=n-(m-'j) as Element of NAT by NAT_1:21;
n-(m-'j) > 0 by A37,XREAL_1:52;
then A38: 1 <= nmj by NAT_1:14;
A39: n-m <= m-m by A16,XREAL_1:11;
nmj=n-(m-j) by A1,XREAL_1:235
.= n-m+j;
then nmj <= j by XREAL_1:34,A39;
then nmj <= j+1-'1 by NAT_D:34;
then A40: n-(m-'j) in Seg (j+1-'1) by A38;
n <= len hj1 by A16,FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then A41: hj1.n = (0*((j+1)-'1)).(n-(m-'j)) by A5,A36,A37,FINSEQ_1:37
.= 0 by FINSEQ_2:71,A40;
n<>m+1-'j & n <= len (x + h/.(j+1)) by A30,A17,FINSEQ_1:3;
then rep/.n = (x + h/.(j+1))/.n by A13,FINSEQ_7:12,A15;
then rep.n = (x + h/.(j+1))/.n by A18,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= (x + h/.(j+1)).n by A18,PARTFUN1:def 8;
hence (x + h/.j).n = rep.n by A19,A41,A34;
end;
end;
hence x + h/.j = reproj(m+1-'j,(x+h/.(j+1))).(proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+y))
by A14,FINSEQ_1:def 17;
end;
theorem Th47:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL 1,
X be Subset of REAL m,
x be Element of REAL m
st X is open & x in X &
(for i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i &
f`partial|(X,i) is_continuous_on X) holds
f is_differentiable_in x &
for h be Element of REAL m
ex w be FinSequence of REAL 1 st
dom w = Seg m &
(for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w.i = (proj(i,m).h)*(partdiff(f,x,i)) )
& diff(f,x).h = Sum w
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL 1,
X be Subset of REAL m,
x be Element of REAL m;
assume
A1: X is open & x in X & for i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i &
f`partial|(X,i) is_continuous_on X;
consider L be bounded LinearOperator of m,1 such that
A2:for h be Element of REAL m ex w be FinSequence of REAL 1 st dom w = Seg m &
(for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w.i = (proj(i,m).h)*(partdiff(f,x,i)) ) &
L.h = Sum w by Lm8;
consider d0 be Real such that
A3:d0 >0 and
A4:{y where y is Element of REAL m: |. y-x .| < d0} c= X by A1,Th31;
set N = {y where y is Element of REAL m: |. y-x .| < d0};
1 <= m by NAT_1:14;
then f is_partial_differentiable_on X,m by A1;
then X c= dom f by Def4;
then A5:
N c= dom f by A4,XBOOLE_1:1;
deffunc RF(Element of REAL m) = f/.(x+$1) - f/.x - L.$1;
consider R be Function of REAL m,REAL 1 such that
A6:for h be Element of REAL m holds R.h = RF(h) from FUNCT_2:sch 4;
consider f0 be PartFunc of REAL m,REAL such that
A7: f=<>*f0 by Th29;
A8: now let r0 be Real;
assume A9: r0 > 0;
set r1=r0/2;
set r=r1/m;
defpred DSQ[Nat, Element of REAL] means
ex k be Element of NAT st $1=k & 0 < $2 &
for q be Element of REAL m st q in X & |. q-x .| < $2 holds
|. partdiff(f,q,k)- partdiff(f,x,k) .| < r;
A10:for k0 be Nat st k0 in Seg m holds ex d be Element of REAL st DSQ[k0,d]
proof
let k0 be Nat;
assume A11: k0 in Seg m;
reconsider k = k0 as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 13;
A12:1 <= k & k <= m by FINSEQ_1:3,A11;
then f`partial|(X,k) is_continuous_on X by A1;
then consider d be Real such that
A13: 0 < d & for q be Element of REAL m st q in X & |. q- x .| < d holds
|. (f`partial|(X,k))/.q - (f`partial|(X,k))/.x .| < r
by A9,A1,Th38;
take d;
for q be Element of REAL m st q in X & |. q- x .| < d holds
|. partdiff(f,q,k) - partdiff(f,x,k) .| < r
proof
let q be Element of REAL m;
assume A14:q in X & |. q- x .| < d;
then A15: |. (f`partial|(X,k))/.q - (f`partial|(X,k))/.x .| < r by A13;
A16: f is_partial_differentiable_on X,k by A1,A12;
then (f`partial|(X,k))/.q = partdiff(f,q,k) by A14,Def5;
hence |. partdiff(f,q,k)- partdiff(f,x,k) .| 0*m & |.y.| < d & z=R.y holds |.y.|"* |. z .| < r0
proof
let y be Element of REAL m, z be Element of REAL 1;
assume A28: y <> 0*m & |. y .|< d & z = R.y;
consider h be FinSequence of REAL m, g be FinSequence of REAL 1 such that
A29: len h = m+1 & len g = m
& (for i be Nat st i in dom h holds h/.i = (y| (m+1-'i))^(0*(i-'1)))
& (for i be Nat st i in dom g holds g/.i = f/.(x+h/.i) - f/.(x+h/.(i+1)))
& (for i be Nat, hi be Element of REAL m st i in dom h & h/.i= hi
holds |. hi .| <=|. y .|)
& f/.(x+y) - f/.x = Sum g by Th28;
A30: R/.y = Sum g - L.y by A6,A29;
consider w be FinSequence of REAL 1 such that
A31: dom w = Seg m & (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w.i = (proj(i,m).y)*(partdiff(f,x,i)) ) &
L.y = Sum w by A2;
idseq m is Permutation of Seg m by FINSEQ_2:65;
then A32: dom idseq m = Seg m & rng idseq m = Seg m &
idseq m is one-to-one by FUNCT_2:def 3,def 1;
then A33: dom Rev idseq m = Seg m &
rng Rev idseq m = Seg m by FINSEQ_5:60;
then
reconsider Ri=Rev idseq m as Function of Seg m,Seg m by FUNCT_2:3;
Ri is one-to-one onto by A33,FUNCT_2:def 3;
then reconsider Ri=Rev idseq m as Permutation of dom w by A31;
A34: len (idseq m) = m by A32,FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= len w by FINSEQ_1:def 3,A31;
A35: dom (w (*) Ri) = dom Ri by A33,RELAT_1:46
.= dom Rev w by A33,A31,FINSEQ_5:60;
now
let k be Nat;
assume A36: k in dom Rev w;
then A37: k in dom Rev idseq m by A33,A31,FINSEQ_5:60;
then A38: 1 <= k & k <= m by A33,FINSEQ_1:3;
then reconsider mk=m-k as Nat by NAT_1:21;
A39: len idseq m = m by A32,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
0 <= mk;
then A40: 0+1 <= m - k + 1 by XREAL_1:8;
k-1 >= 1-1 by A38,XREAL_1:11;
then m-(k-1) <= m by XREAL_1:45;
then A41: mk+1 in Seg m by A40;
thus (Rev w).k = w.(len (idseq m) - k + 1) by A34,FINSEQ_5:def 3,A36
.= w.((idseq m).(len (idseq m) - k + 1)) by A41,FINSEQ_2:57,A39
.= w.((Rev idseq m).k) by A37,FINSEQ_5:def 3
.= (w (*) Ri).k by A36,A35,FUNCT_1:22;
end;
then A42: Sum Rev w = Sum w by A35,FINSEQ_1:17,EUCLID_7:23;
deffunc GW(Nat) = g/.$1 - (Rev w)/.$1;
consider gw be FinSequence of REAL 1 such that
A43:len gw =m &
for j being Nat st j in dom gw holds gw.j = GW(j) from FINSEQ_2:sch 1;
A44:now let j be Nat;
assume A45:j in dom gw;
hence gw/.j = gw.j by PARTFUN1:def 8
.= g/.j - (Rev w)/.j by A45,A43;
end;
A46: len w = m by A31,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then len Rev w = m by FINSEQ_5:def 3;
then A47:R/.y = Sum gw by A29,A30,A31,A43,A44,A42,Th27;
A48: for j be Element of NAT st j in dom gw
ex gwj be Element of REAL 1 st gw.j=gwj & |. gwj .| <= |. y .|*r
proof
let j be Element of NAT;
assume A49: j in dom gw;
then A50: j in Seg m by FINSEQ_1:def 3,A43;
then j in dom g by A29,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A51: g/.j = f/.(x+h/.j) - f/.(x+h/.(j+1)) by A29;
A52: 1 <= j & j <=m by A50,FINSEQ_1:3;
then m+1 <= m+j & j+1 <= m+1 by XREAL_1:8;
then m+1-j <= m & 1 <= m+1-j by XREAL_1:21,22;
then A53: m+1-'j <= m & 1 <= m+1-'j by A52,NAT_D:37;
then A54: f is_partial_differentiable_on X,(m+1-'j) by A1;
then A55: X c=dom f & for x be Element of REAL m st x in X holds
f is_partial_differentiable_in x,(m+1-'j) by A53,Th34,A1;
A56: m+1-'j in Seg m by A53;
then A57: w/.(m+1-'j) = w.(m+1-'j) by A31,PARTFUN1:def 8
.= (proj((m+1-'j),m).y)*(partdiff(f,x,(m+1-'j))) by A31,A56;
A58: now let j be Element of NAT;
assume 1 <= j & j <= m + 1;
then j in Seg(m+1);
then A59: j in dom h by A29,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A60: (x+h/.j)-x = h/.j by RVSUM_1:63;
reconsider hj = h/.j as Element of REAL m;
|. hj .| <= |. y .| by A29,A59;
hence |. (x+h/.j)-x .| < d by A60,XXREAL_0:2,A28;
end;
rng f0 c= dom (proj(1,1) qua Function") by PDIFF_1:2;
then A61:dom f = dom f0 by A7,RELAT_1:46;
m <= m+1 by NAT_1:11;
then Seg m c= Seg(m+1) by FINSEQ_1:7;
then 1 <= j & j <= m + 1 by A50,FINSEQ_1:3;
then A62: |. (x+h/.j)-x .| < d by A58;
then A63: x+h/.j in X by A22;
then A64: f/.(x+h/.j) = (<>*f0).(x+h/.j) by A55,PARTFUN1:def 8,A7
.= (proj(1,1) qua Function").(f0.(x+h/.j)) by A63,A55,A61,FUNCT_1:23
.= <* f0.(x+h/.j) *> by PDIFF_1:1
.= <* f0/.(x+h/.j) *> by PARTFUN1:def 8, A63,A55,A61;
A65: 1 <= j & j <= m by FINSEQ_1:3,A50;
A66: 1 <= j+1 by NAT_1:11;
A67: j+1 <= m+1 by A65,XREAL_1:8;
then A68: |. (x+h/.(j+1))-x .| < d by A66,A58;
then A69: x+h/.(j+1) in X by A22;
then A70: f/.(x+h/.(j+1)) = (<>*f0).(x+h/.(j+1)) by A55,PARTFUN1:def 8,A7
.= (proj(1,1) qua Function").(f0.(x+h/.(j+1))) by A69,A55
,A61,FUNCT_1:23
.= <* f0.(x+h/.(j+1)) *> by PDIFF_1:1
.= <* f0/.(x+h/.(j+1)) *> by PARTFUN1:def 8, A69,A55,A61;
f is_partial_differentiable_in x,(m+1-'j) by A54,A53,Th34,A1;
then A71: partdiff(f,x,(m+1-'j)) = <*partdiff(f0,x,(m+1-'j))*> by A7
,PDIFF_1:19;
then A72: (proj((m+1-'j),m).y)*(partdiff(f,x,(m+1-'j)))
= <* (proj((m+1-'j),m).y)*(partdiff(f0,x,(m+1-'j))) *>
by RVSUM_1:69;
A73: f/.(x+h/.j) - f/.(x+h/.(j+1))
= <* f0/.(x+h/.j) - f0/.(x+h/.(j+1)) *> by A64,A70,RVSUM_1:50;
A74: X c= dom f0 & for x be Element of REAL m st x in X holds
f0 is_partial_differentiable_in x,(m+1-'j)
proof
thus X c=dom f0 by A54,A53,Th34,A1,A61;
let x be Element of REAL m;
assume x in X;
then f is_partial_differentiable_in x,(m+1-'j) by A54,A53,Th34,A1;
hence f0 is_partial_differentiable_in x,(m+1-'j) by A7,PDIFF_1:18;
end;
A75: x + h/.j = reproj(m+1-'j,(x+h/.(j+1))).(proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+y))
by Th46,A29,A65;
m+1-'(j+1) = m+1-(j+1) by A67,XREAL_1:235;
then m+1-'(j+1) = m-j;
then A76: m+1-'(j+1) = m-'j by A65,XREAL_1:235;
A77: (j+1)-'1 = (j+1)-1 by NAT_1:11,XREAL_1:235;
consider q be Element of REAL m such that
A78: |. q - x .| < d & f0 is_partial_differentiable_in q,(m+1-'j) &
f0/.(x+h/.j) - f0 /.(x+h/.(j+1))
= ( (proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+y)) - proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+h/.(j+1)) )*
(partdiff(f0,q,m+1-'j))
by A62,A68,A75,A53,A74,A22,A1,Th45;
A79: |. partdiff(f,q,(m+1-'j)) - partdiff(f,x,(m+1-'j)) .| < r by A78,A56,A24;
f is_partial_differentiable_in q,(m+1-'j) by A78,A7,PDIFF_1:18;
then A80: partdiff(f,q,(m+1-'j)) = <*partdiff(f0,q,(m+1-'j))*> by A7
,PDIFF_1:19;
set mij=m+1-'j;
set mj=m-'j;
reconsider hj1=h/.(j+1) as Element of REAL m;
A81: len x = m & len y = m & len hj1 = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then mij in dom x & mij in dom y & mij in dom hj1 by A56
,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then mij in dom x /\ dom y & mij in dom x /\ dom hj1 by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A82: mij in dom (x+y) & mij in dom (x+hj1) by VALUED_1:def 1;
j+1 in Seg(m+1) by A66,A67;
then j+1 in dom h by A29,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A83: h/.(j+1) = (y| mj)^(0*j) by A29,A76, A77;
A84: len (y|mj) = mj by A81,NAT_D:35,FINSEQ_1:80;
A85: 1 in Seg j by A52;
A86: mij = mj+1 by NAT_D:38,A65;
then mij > len (y|mj) by NAT_1:13,A84;
then A87: hj1.mij = (0*j).(mij-mj) by A53,A81,FINSEQ_1:37,A83,A84
.= 0 by FINSEQ_2:71,A85,A86;
A88: (proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+y)) - proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+h/.(j+1))
= (x+y).mij - proj(m+1-'j,m).(x+h/.(j+1)) by PDIFF_1:def 1
.= (x+y).mij - (x+h/.(j+1)).mij by PDIFF_1:def 1
.= x . mij + y.mij - (x+h/.(j+1)).mij by VALUED_1:def 1,A82
.= x . mij + y.mij - (x . mij + 0) by A87, VALUED_1:def 1,A82
.= proj(m+1-'j,m).y by PDIFF_1:def 1;
reconsider gwj=gw/.j as Element of REAL 1;
take gwj;
thus gw.j=gwj by A49,PARTFUN1:def 8;
A89: m+1-'j = m+1-j by A65,NAT_1:12,XREAL_1:235;
j in Seg len (Rev w) by A50,A46,FINSEQ_5:def 3;
then A90: j in dom Rev w by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then (Rev w)/.j = (Rev w).j by PARTFUN1:def 8
.= w.(m-j+1) by A46,A90,FINSEQ_5:def 3
.= w/.(m+1-'j) by A89, A56, A31,PARTFUN1:def 8;
then gw/.j = g/.j - w/.(m+1-'j) by A49,A44
.= <* (proj(m+1-'j,m).y)*(partdiff(f0,q,m+1-'j))
- (proj(m+1-'j,m).y)*(partdiff(f0,x,m+1-'j)) *>
by A78,A88,A57,A51,A72,A73,RVSUM_1:50
.= <* (proj(m+1-'j,m).y)*((partdiff(f0,q,m+1-'j))
- (partdiff(f0,x,m+1-'j))) *>
.= (proj(m+1-'j,m).y)* <* partdiff(f0,q,m+1-'j)
- partdiff(f0,x,m+1-'j) *> by RVSUM_1:69
.= (proj(m+1-'j,m).y)*(partdiff(f,q,m+1-'j) - partdiff(f,x,m+1-'j))
by A71,A80,RVSUM_1:50;
then A91: |. gwj .| = abs((proj(m+1-'j,m).y)) *
|. partdiff(f,q,m+1-'j) - partdiff(f,x,m+1-'j) .| by EUCLID:14;
0 <= abs((proj(m+1-'j,m).y)) by COMPLEX1:132;
then A92: |. gwj .| <= abs((proj(m+1-'j,m).y))*r by A91,A79,XREAL_1:66;
abs(y.(m+1-'j)) <= |.y.| by REAL_NS1:8,A56;
then abs((proj(m+1-'j,m).y)) <= |. y .| by PDIFF_1:def 1;
then abs((proj(m+1-'j,m).y))*r <= |. y .|*r by A9,XREAL_1:66;
hence |. gwj .| <= |. y .|*r by A92,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
defpred YSQ[set,set] means
ex v be Element of REAL 1 st v = gw.$1 & $2 = |. v .|;
A93: now let k be Nat;
assume k in Seg m;
then k in dom gw by A43,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then reconsider v= gw.k as Element of REAL 1 by PARTFUN1:27;
|.v .| in REAL;
hence ex x being Element of REAL st YSQ[k,x];
end;
consider yseq be FinSequence of REAL such that
A94: dom yseq = Seg m &
for i be Nat st i in Seg m holds YSQ[i,yseq.i] from FINSEQ_1:sch 5(A93);
A95:len gw = len yseq by A43,FINSEQ_1:def 3,A94;
A96: now let i be Element of NAT;
assume i in dom gw;
then i in Seg m by A43,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence ex v be Element of REAL 1 st v=gw.i & yseq.i = |. v .| by A94;
end;
reconsider yseq as Element of REAL m by A95,A43,FINSEQ_2:110;
A97: |. Sum gw .| <= Sum yseq by A96,A95,PDIFF_6:17;
for j be Nat st j in Seg m holds yseq.j <= (m |-> (|. y .|*r)).j
proof
let j be Nat;
assume A98: j in Seg m;
then A99: j in dom gw by A43,FINSEQ_1:def 3; then
A100: ex v be Element of REAL 1 st v = gw.j & yseq.j = |. v .| by A96;
ex gwj be Element of REAL 1 st gw.j = gwj & |. gwj .| <= |. y .|*r
by A48,A99;
hence yseq.j <= (m |-> (|. y .|*r)).j by A100,FINSEQ_2:71,A98;
end;
then Sum yseq <= Sum(m |-> (|. y .|*r)) by RVSUM_1:112;
then Sum yseq <= m*(|. y .|*r) by RVSUM_1:110;
then |. z .| <= m*(|. y .|*r) by A47,A28,A97,XXREAL_0:2;
then |. z .|*|.y.|" <= (m*|. y .|*r)*|.y.|" by XREAL_1:66;
then |. z .|*|.y.|" <= m*((r*|. y .|)*|.y.|");
then |.y.|"* |. z .| <= m*r by EUCLID:11,A28,XCMPLX_1:204;
then A101: |.y.|"* |. z .| <= r1 by XCMPLX_1:88;
r1 < r0 by A9,XREAL_1:218;
hence (|.y.|"* |. z .|) < r0 by XXREAL_0:2,A101;
end;
end;
for y being Element of REAL m st |. y-x .| < d0 holds
f/.y - f/.x = L.(y-x) + R.(y-x)
proof
let y be Element of REAL m;
assume |. y-x .| < d0;
R.(y-x) = f/.(x+(y-x)) - f/.x - L.(y-x) by A6;
hence L.(y-x) + R.(y-x)
= f/.(x+(y-x)) - f/.x - (L.(y-x) - L.(y-x)) by RVSUM_1:62
.= f/.(x+(y-x)) - f/.x - 0*1 by RVSUM_1:58
.= f/.(x+(y-x)) - f/.x by RVSUM_1:53
.= f/.(x+y-x) - f/.x by RVSUM_1:61
.= f/.(y+(x-x)) - f/.x by RVSUM_1:61
.= f/.(y+ 0*m) - f/.x by RVSUM_1:58
.= f/.y - f/.x by RVSUM_1:33;
end;
then f is_differentiable_in x & diff(f,x) = L by PDIFF_6:24,A3,
A5,A8;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
theorem Th48:
for m be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS 1,
X be Subset of REAL-NS m,
x be Point of REAL-NS m st X is open & x in X &
(for i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i &
f`partial|(X,i) is_continuous_on X ) holds
f is_differentiable_in x &
for h be Point of REAL-NS m
ex w be FinSequence of REAL 1 st dom w = Seg m &
(for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w.i = partdiff(f,x,i).<*(proj(i,m).h)*>)
& diff(f,x).h=Sum(w)
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS 1,
X be Subset of REAL-NS m,
x be Point of REAL-NS m;
assume
A1: X is open & x in X & (for i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i &
f`partial|(X,i) is_continuous_on X );
A2:the carrier of REAL-NS m = REAL m &
the carrier of REAL-NS 1 = REAL 1 by REAL_NS1:def 4;
reconsider One0 = <* 1 *> as Element of REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
reconsider One = One0 as Point of REAL-NS 1 by REAL_NS1:def 4;
reconsider f0=f as PartFunc of REAL m,REAL 1 by A2;
reconsider X0= X as Subset of REAL m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
reconsider x0= x as Element of REAL m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
A3: X0 is open by Def3,A1;
A4:now let i be Element of NAT;
assume A5: 1 <=i & i <= m;
then A6: f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i by A1;
hence A7: f0 is_partial_differentiable_on X0,i by Th33;
A8: f`partial|(X,i) is_continuous_on X by A1,A5;
A9: dom (f0 `partial|(X0,i)) = X0 & for x0 be Element of REAL m st x0 in X0
holds (f0 `partial|(X0,i))/.x0 = partdiff(f0,x0,i) by Def5,A7;
A10:for z be Element of REAL m st z in X0 holds ex y be Point of REAL-NS m
st z=y & (f0 `partial|(X0,i))/.z = partdiff(f,y,i).One
proof
let z be Element of REAL m;
assume A11: z in X0;
then f0 is_partial_differentiable_in z,i by A7,A5,A3,Th34;
then consider g be PartFunc of
REAL-NS m,REAL-NS 1, y be Point of REAL-NS m such that
A12: f0=g & z=y
& partdiff(f0,z,i) = partdiff(g,y,i).<*1*> by PDIFF_1:def 14;
take y;
thus z=y by A12;
thus (f0 `partial|(X0,i))/.z = partdiff(f,y,i).One by A12,A11,Def5,A7;
end;
for z0 be Element of REAL m, r be Real st z0 in X0 & 0
proof
let i be Element of NAT;
assume A24: i in Seg m;
then A25: 1<=i & i <=m by FINSEQ_1:3;
then f0 is_partial_differentiable_on X0,i by A4;
then f0 is_partial_differentiable_in x0,i by A1,A3,A25,Th34;
then A26: ex g be PartFunc of
REAL-NS m,REAL-NS 1, y be Point of REAL-NS m st f0=g & x0=y
& partdiff(f0,x0,i) = partdiff(g,y,i).<*1*> by PDIFF_1:def 14;
A27: (proj(i,m).h)*One =(proj(i,m).h0)*One0 by REAL_NS1:3
.=<* (proj(i,m).h0)*1 *> by RVSUM_1:69
.=<*(proj(i,m).h)*>;
reconsider PDP = partdiff(f,x,i)
as bounded LinearOperator of REAL-NS 1,REAL-NS 1 by LOPBAN_1:def 10;
(proj(i,m).h0)*partdiff(f0,x0,i)
= (proj(i,m).h0)*(PDP.One ) by REAL_NS1:3, A26
.= partdiff(f,x,i).<*(proj(i,m).h)*> by A27,LOPBAN_1:def 6;
hence w.i = partdiff(f,x,i).<*(proj(i,m).h)*> by A24,A23;
end;
thus diff(f,x).h=Sum(w) by A23, A22;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for m be non empty Element of NAT, f be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS 1,
X be Subset of REAL-NS m
st X is open holds
(for i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i &
f`partial|(X,i) is_continuous_on X)
iff
f is_differentiable_on X & f`|X is_continuous_on X
proof
let m be non empty Element of NAT,
f be PartFunc of REAL-NS m,REAL-NS 1,
X be Subset of REAL-NS m;
assume A1: X is open;
hereby
assume A2:
for i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i &
f`partial|(X,i) is_continuous_on X;
A3: now
let i be Element of NAT;
assume 1 <=i & i <= m;
then f`partial|(X,i) is_continuous_on X by A2;
hence X c= dom (f`partial|(X,i))
& for y0 be Point of REAL-NS m, r be Real st
y0 in X & 0 0 by A10;
let y1 be Point of REAL-NS m;
assume A12: y1 in X & ||. y1- y0 .|| < s;
reconsider DD=diff(f,y1)-diff(f,y0) as bounded LinearOperator of
REAL-NS m, REAL-NS 1 by LOPBAN_1:def 10;
A13: upper_bound PreNorms(DD) = ||. diff(f,y1) - diff(f,y0) .||
by LOPBAN_1:36;
now
let mt be real number;
assume mt in PreNorms(DD);
then consider t being VECTOR of REAL-NS m such that
A14: mt=||.DD.t.|| & ||.t.|| <= 1;
reconsider tt=t as Element of REAL m by REAL_NS1:def 4;
consider w0 be FinSequence of REAL 1 such that
A15: dom w0 = Seg m & (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w0.i = partdiff(f,y0,i).<*(proj(i,m).t)*>) &
diff(f,y0).t=Sum(w0) by A1,A2,Th48,A7;
reconsider Sw0=Sum w0 as Point of REAL-NS 1 by A15;
consider w1 be FinSequence of REAL 1 such that
A16: dom w1 = Seg m & (for i be Element of NAT st i in Seg m holds
w1.i = partdiff(f,y1,i).<*(proj(i,m).t)*>) &
diff(f,y1).t=Sum(w1) by A1,A2,Th48,A12;
reconsider Sw1=Sum w1 as Point of REAL-NS 1 by A16;
deffunc F(set) = w1/.$1 - w0/.$1;
consider w2 being FinSequence of REAL 1 such that
A17: len w2 = m & for i being Nat st i in dom w2 holds
w2.i = F(i) from FINSEQ_2:sch 1;
A18: len w1 = m & len w0 = m by A15,A16,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
now
let i be Nat;
assume A19: i in dom w2;
then w2.i = F(i) by A17;
hence w2/.i=F(i) by A19,PARTFUN1:def 8;
end;
then A20: Sum w2 = Sum w1 - Sum w0 by A17,Th27,A18;
DD.t = Sw1 - Sw0 by A16,A15,LOPBAN_1:46
.= Sum w2 by A20,REAL_NS1:5;
then A21: mt=|. Sum w2 .| by REAL_NS1:1,A14;
deffunc F(Nat) = |. (w2/.$1) qua Element of REAL 1.|;
consider ys being FinSequence of REAL such that
A22: len ys = m & for j being Nat st j in dom ys holds ys.j = F(j)
from FINSEQ_2:sch 1;
A23: now
let i be Element of NAT;
assume A24: i in dom w2;
reconsider v=w2/.i as Element of REAL 1;
take v;
thus v = w2.i by A24,PARTFUN1:def 8;
i in Seg m by A17,A24,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then i in dom ys by A22,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence ys.i = |.v.| by A22;
end;
then A25: |. Sum w2 .| <= Sum ys by A17,A22,PDIFF_6:17;
reconsider rm=r/(2*m) as Element of REAL;
deffunc F(Nat) = rm;
consider rs being FinSequence of REAL such that
A26: len rs = m & for j being Nat st j in dom rs holds rs.j = F(j)
from FINSEQ_2:sch 1;
A27: dom rs = Seg m by A26,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
rng rs = {rm}
proof
thus rng rs c= {rm}
proof
let a be set;
assume a in rng rs;
then consider b being set such that
A28: b in dom rs & a=rs.b by FUNCT_1:def 5;
reconsider b as Nat by A28;
rs.b=rm by A28,A26;
hence a in {rm} by A28,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
let a be set;
assume a in {rm};
then A29: a=rm by TARSKI:def 1;
1 <= m by NAT_1:14;
then A30: 1 in dom rs by A27;
then a=rs.1 by A29,A26;
hence a in rng rs by A30,FUNCT_1:12;
end;
then rs = (m |-> (r/(2*m))) by FUNCOP_1:15,A27;
then A31: Sum rs = m*(r/(2*m)) by RVSUM_1:110
.= m*(r/2/m) by XCMPLX_1:79
.= r/2 by XCMPLX_1:88;
now
let i be Element of NAT;
assume i in dom ys;
then A32: i in Seg m by A22,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then A33: i in dom w2 & i in dom w1 & i in dom w0
by A15,A16,A17,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then consider v being Element of REAL 1 such that
A34: v = w2.i & ys.i = |.v.| by A23;
A35: i in dom rs by A26,FINSEQ_1:def 3,A32;
reconsider p1=partdiff(f,y1,i),p0=partdiff(f,y0,i) as
bounded LinearOperator of REAL-NS 1, REAL-NS 1
by LOPBAN_1:def 10;
A36: dom p1=the carrier of REAL-NS 1 &
rng p1 c= the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
<*proj(i,m).t*> in REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
then <*proj(i,m).t*> in the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by
REAL_NS1:def 4;
then p1.<*proj(i,m).t*> in rng p1 by FUNCT_1:12,A36; then
reconsider P1=p1.<*proj(i,m).t*> as VECTOR of REAL-NS 1;
A37: dom p0=the carrier of REAL-NS 1 &
rng p0 c= the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
<*proj(i,m).t*> in REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
then <*proj(i,m).t*> in the carrier of REAL-NS 1 by
REAL_NS1:def 4;
then p0.<*proj(i,m).t*> in rng p0 by FUNCT_1:12,A37; then
reconsider P0=p0.<*proj(i,m).t*> as VECTOR of REAL-NS 1;
A38: w1/.i = w1.i by PARTFUN1:def 8,A32,A16
.= P1 by A16,A32;
A39: w0/.i = w0.i by PARTFUN1:def 8,A32,A15
.= P0 by A15,A32;
A40: w2.i=w1/.i - w0/.i by A33,A17
.= P1-P0 by A39,A38,REAL_NS1:5;
1 <= i & i <= len S by A11,A32,FINSEQ_1:3;
then A41: s <= S.i & f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i
by A11,RFINSEQ2:2,A2;
then ||. y1- y0 .|| < S.i by A12,XXREAL_0:2; then
||. (f`partial|(X,i))/.y1-(f`partial|(X,i))/.y0 .|| in REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:118;
then reconsider pt=<*proj(i,m).t*> as VECTOR of REAL-NS 1
by REAL_NS1:def 4;
A44: PP.pt=P1-P0 by LOPBAN_1:46;
reconsider pt1=<*proj(i,m).t*> as Element of REAL 1
by FINSEQ_2:118;
A45: ||.pt.|| = |.pt1.| by REAL_NS1:1
.= sqrt (Sum <*(proj(i,m).t)^2*>) by RVSUM_1:81
.= sqrt ((proj(i,m).t)^2) by RVSUM_1:103;
A46: (proj(i,m).t)^2 >= 0
proof
per cases;
suppose (proj(i,m).t) = 0;
hence thesis;
end;
suppose (proj(i,m).t) <> 0;
hence thesis by SQUARE_1:74;
end;
end;
now
assume ||.pt.|| > 1;
then (proj(i,m).t)^2 > 1 by A45,SQUARE_1:83,SQUARE_1:94,A46;
then A47: (tt.i)^2 > 1 by PDIFF_1:def 1;
|.tt.| <= 1 by A14,REAL_NS1:1; then
A48: Sum sqr tt <= 1 by SQUARE_1:83,SQUARE_1:95;
len tt = m by FINSEQ_1:def 18;
then i in dom tt by A32,FINSEQ_1:def 3; then
A49: i in dom sqr tt by TOPREAL7:9;
now
let k be Element of NAT;
assume k in dom sqr tt;
A50: (sqr tt).k = (tt.k)^2 by VALUED_1:11;
per cases;
suppose tt.k = 0;
hence (sqr tt).k >= 0 by A50;
end;
suppose tt.k <> 0;
hence (sqr tt).k >= 0 by A50,SQUARE_1:74;
end;
end;
then Sum sqr tt >= (sqr tt).i by A49,POLYNOM5:4;
then Sum sqr tt >= (tt.i)^2 by VALUED_1:11;
hence contradiction by A47,A48,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
then ||.PP.pt.|| in PreNorms(PP) &
PreNorms(PP) is non empty bounded_above by LOPBAN_1:32;
then ||.PP.pt.|| <= upper_bound PreNorms(PP) by SEQ_4:def 4;
then ||.P1-P0.|| <= r/(2*m) by A44,A42,XXREAL_0:2,A43;
then |.v.| <= r/(2*m) by A34,A40,REAL_NS1:1;
hence ys.i <= rs.i by A34,A26,A35;
end;
then Sum ys <= r/2 by A31,INTEGRA5:3,A26,A22;
hence mt <= r/2 by A21,A25,XXREAL_0:2;
end; then
A51: ||. diff(f,y1) - diff(f,y0) .|| <= r/2 & r/2 < r
by SEQ_4:62,A13,A7,XREAL_1:218;
||. (f`|X)/.y1-(f`|X)/.y0 .|| = ||. diff(f,y1) -(f`|X)/.y0 .||
by A5,NDIFF_1:def 9,A12
.= ||. diff(f,y1) - diff(f,y0) .|| by A5,NDIFF_1:def 9,A7;
hence ||. (f`|X)/.y1-(f`|X)/.y0 .|| < r by A51,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
hence f`|X is_continuous_on X by A6,NFCONT_1:26;
end;
assume A52:
f is_differentiable_on X & f`|X is_continuous_on X;
then A53: X c= dom f & for x be Point of REAL-NS m st x in X holds
f is_differentiable_in x by A1,NDIFF_1:36;
thus for i be Element of NAT st 1 <=i & i <= m holds
f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i & f`partial|(X,i) is_continuous_on X
proof
let i be Element of NAT;
assume A54:1 <=i & i <= m;
now
let x be Point of REAL-NS m;
assume x in X;
then f is_differentiable_in x by A52,A1,NDIFF_1:36;
hence f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i &
partdiff(f,x,i) = diff(f,x) * reproj(i,0.(REAL-NS m)) by A54,Th21;
end;
then for x be Point of REAL-NS m st x in X
holds f is_partial_differentiable_in x,i;
hence
A55: f is_partial_differentiable_on X,i by A1,A54,Th8,A53;
then A56: dom (f`partial|(X,i)) = X by PDIFF_1:def 20;
for y0 be Point of REAL-NS m, r be Real st y0 in X & 0~~