:: Introduction to Formal Preference Spaces
:: by Eliza Niewiadomska and Adam Grabowski
::
:: Received October 7, 2013
:: Copyright (c) 2013 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies PREFER_1, PCS_0, ORDERS_1, WELLORD1, WAYBEL_4, CARD_1, SUBSET_1,
RELAT_1, XBOOLE_0, PARTFUN1, RELAT_2, STRUCT_0, ZFMISC_1, TARSKI,
ORDERS_2, EQREL_1;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, XTUPLE_0, SUBSET_1, ZFMISC_1, MCART_1, DOMAIN_1,
CARD_1, NAT_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, PARTFUN1, RELSET_1, RELAT_2, EQREL_1,
CARD_3, PARTIT_2, FUNCT_4, ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, FUNCOP_1, WELLORD1,
STRUCT_0, ORDERS_1, ORDERS_2, YELLOW_3, ENUMSET1, PCS_0, XCMPLX_0,
FUNCT_2, VALUED_0;
constructors PRALG_1, PARTIT_2, TSEP_1, YELLOW16, YELLOW_3, DOMAIN_1,
RELSET_1, FUNCT_4, AFINSQ_1, XTUPLE_0, NUMBERS, PARTFUN2, NAT_1,
ORDERS_1, PCS_0, WELLORD1, WELLORD2, FUNCOP_1, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, CARD_1,
XCMPLX_0, INT_1, VALUED_0;
registrations EQREL_1, PARTFUN1, SUBSET_1, XBOOLE_0, WAYBEL_3, RELAT_1,
ORDERS_1, WELLORD1, ORDERS_2, STRUCT_0, YELLOW16, YELLOW_3, RELSET_1,
FUNCOP_1, RELAT_2, XTUPLE_0, ORDINAL1, PARTIT_2, TOLER_1, ZFMISC_1,
NAT_1, FOMODEL3, REWRITE2, PRE_POLY, FUNCT_1, FINSET_1, XXREAL_0,
XREAL_0, CARD_1, NUMBERS, VALUED_0;
requirements BOOLE, SUBSET, NUMERALS, REAL, ARITHM;
definitions TARSKI, RELAT_2;
equalities EQREL_1, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1;
theorems XBOOLE_0, SYSREL, ZFMISC_1, XBOOLE_1, RELAT_1, CARD_2, RELAT_2,
ENUMSET1, CARD_1, TARSKI, XTUPLE_0, NECKLA_3, SUBSET_1, PARTFUN1,
ORDERS_1, PRE_POLY, WELLSET1, ROUGHS_1;
begin :: Preliminaries
definition let X, Y, Z be set;
pred X, Y, Z are_mutually_disjoint means
X misses Y & Y misses Z & X misses Z;
end;
theorem Lemma1:
for A being set holds
{}, A, {} are_mutually_disjoint
proof
let A be set;
a1: {} /\ A = {};
{} /\ {} = {};
hence {}, A, {} are_mutually_disjoint by a1,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
end;
registration
cluster 2-element -> non empty for set;
coherence;
end;
theorem
for a, b being set st a <> b holds
{[a, a], [b, b]} <> {[a, a], [a, b], [b, a], [b, b]}
proof
let a, b be set;
assume
AA: a <> b;
set x1 = [a, a], x2 = [a, b], x3 = [b, a], x4 = [b, b];
A0: x2 <> x1 & x2 <> x4 by AA,XTUPLE_0:1;
[a, b] in {[a, a], [a, b], [b, a], [b, b]} by ENUMSET1:def 2;
hence thesis by A0,TARSKI:def 2;
end;
theorem Lemma3:
for A being 2-element set, a, b being Element of A st
a <> b holds A = {a, b}
proof
let A be 2-element set, a, b be Element of A;
assume
A0: a <> b;
card A = 2 by CARD_1:def 7; then
consider c, d being element such that
A1: c <> d & A = {c, d} by CARD_2:60;
a = c or a = d by TARSKI:def 2,A1;
hence thesis by A0,TARSKI:def 2,A1;
end;
theorem
for A being 2-element set holds
ex a, b being Element of A st a <> b & A = {a, b}
proof
let A be 2-element set;
card A = 2 by CARD_1:def 7; then
consider c, d being element such that
A1: c <> d & A = {c, d} by CARD_2:60;
c in A & d in A by A1,TARSKI:def 2;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem
for A being non trivial set holds
ex a, b being Element of A st a <> b
proof
let A be non trivial set;
set x = the Element of A;
consider d1 being element such that
A1: d1 in A & d1 <> x by SUBSET_1:48;
thus thesis by A1;
end;
theorem Lemma6:
for x1, x2, x3, x4 being set holds
{x1} \/ {x2} \/ {x3, x4} = {x3, x1, x2, x4}
proof
let x1, x2, x3, x4 be set;
{x1} \/ {x2} \/ {x3, x4} = {x1, x2} \/ {x3, x4} by ENUMSET1:1
.= {x1, x2, x3, x4} by ENUMSET1:5
.= {x3, x2, x1, x4} by ENUMSET1:71
.= {x3} \/ {x2, x1, x4} by ENUMSET1:4
.= {x3} \/ {x1, x2, x4} by ENUMSET1:58
.= {x3, x1, x2, x4} by ENUMSET1:4;
hence thesis;
end;
Lemma10:
for a,b,c,d being element holds
{a, d} \/ {b, c} = {a, b, c, d}
proof
let a,b,c,d be element;
set x1 = a, x2 = d, x3 = b, x4 = c;
{x1, x2} \/ {x3, x4} = {x1, x2, x3, x4} by ENUMSET1:5
.= {x1, x3, x4, x2} by ENUMSET1:63;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Lemma11:
for a, b being set st a <> b holds
{[a, a], [b, b]} misses {[a, b], [b, a]}
proof
let a, b be set;
assume a <> b; then
A0: [a,b] <> [a,a] & [a,b] <> [b,b] & [a,b] <> [b,a] & [a,a] <> [b,a]
& [b,b] <> [b,a] by XTUPLE_0:1;
set A = {[a, a], [b, b]}, B = {[a, b], [b, a]};
assume A meets B; then
consider x being element such that
A1: x in A & x in B by XBOOLE_0:3;
x = [a,a] or x = [b,b] by A1,TARSKI:def 2;
hence thesis by A0,A1,TARSKI:def 2;
end;
theorem Lemma4:
for A being 2-element set, a, b being Element of A st a <> b holds
id A = {[a, a], [b, b]}
proof
let A be 2-element set, a, b be Element of A;
assume
A0: a <> b;
set c = a, d = b;
set x1 = [a,a], x2 = [b,b];
T0: A = {a, b} by Lemma3, A0;
T2: id {a,b,c,d} = id {a,a,b,b} by ENUMSET1:62
.= id {a,b,b} by ENUMSET1:31
.= id {b,b,a} by ENUMSET1:59
.= id {a,b} by ENUMSET1:30;
{[a,a],[b,b],[c,c],[d,d]} = {x1, x1, x2, x2} by ENUMSET1:62
.= {x1, x2, x2} by ENUMSET1:31
.= {x2, x2, x1} by ENUMSET1:59
.= {x1, x2} by ENUMSET1:30;
hence thesis by NECKLA_3:2,T2,T0;
end;
theorem Lemma7:
for a, b being element,
R being Relation st R = {[a, b]} holds
R~ = {[b, a]}
proof
let a, b be element, R be Relation;
assume R = {[a, b]}; then
dom R = {a} & rng R = {b} by RELAT_1:9; then
dom (R~) = {b} & rng (R~) = {a} by RELAT_1:20;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:189;
end;
theorem Lemma8:
for a, b being set holds
a <> b iff {[a, b]} misses {[a, a], [b, b]}
proof
let a, b be set;
thus a <> b implies {[a, b]} misses {[a, a], [b, b]}
proof
assume
A0: a <> b; then
A1: [a,b] <> [a,a] by XTUPLE_0:1;
A2: [a,b] <> [b,b] by A0,XTUPLE_0:1;
set A = {[a, b]}, B = {[a, a], [b, b]};
assume A meets B; then
consider x being element such that
A4: x in A & x in B by XBOOLE_0:3;
x = [a, b] by TARSKI:def 1,A4;
hence thesis by A1, A2,A4, TARSKI:def 2;
end;
assume
A0: {[a, b]} misses {[a, a], [b, b]};
assume a = b; then
not [a,a] in {[a, a], [b, b]} by ZFMISC_1:48,A0;
hence thesis by TARSKI:def 2;
end;
theorem Lemma12b:
for X being non empty set,
R being (Relation of X),
x,y being Element of X holds
not [x,y] in R` implies [x,y] in R
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be (Relation of X),
x,y be Element of X;
assume
A2: not [x,y] in R`;
R \/ R` = [#][:X, X:] by SUBSET_1:10;
hence thesis by A2, XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
theorem
for X being non empty set,
R being Relation of X holds
R /\ (R~)`, R /\ R~, R` /\ (R~)` are_mutually_disjoint
proof
let X be non empty set;
let R be Relation of X;
set C = R` /\ R~`;
z1: (R /\ (R~)`) /\ (R /\ R~) = R /\ (R~` /\ R~) by XBOOLE_1:116
.= R /\ {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= {};
z2: (R /\ R~`) /\ (R` /\ R~`) = R~` /\ (R /\ R`) by XBOOLE_1:116
.= R~` /\ {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= {};
X0: R /\ R` = {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23;
(R /\ R~) /\ (R` /\ R~`) = (R /\ C) /\ R~ by XBOOLE_1:16
.= ((R /\ R`) /\ R~`) /\ R~ by XBOOLE_1:16
.= {} by X0;
hence thesis by z1,z2,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
end;
theorem LemmaAuxIrr:
for P,R being Relation st P misses R holds
P~ misses R~
proof
let P,R be Relation;
assume P misses R; then
P /\ R = {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7; then
A1: (P /\ R)~ = {};
(P /\ R)~ = P~ /\ R~ by RELAT_1:22;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 7,A1;
end;
theorem Tilde1:
for X being non empty set,
R being Relation of X holds
R = R~`~`
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be Relation of X;
for x,y being element st [x,y] in R holds [x,y] in R~`~`
proof
let x,y be element;
assume
X0: [x,y] in R; then
x1: x in field R & y in field R by RELAT_1:15;
[y,x] in R~ by X0,RELAT_1:def 7; then
not [y,x] in R~` by XBOOLE_0:def 5; then
not [x,y] in R~`~ by RELAT_1:def 7;
hence thesis by x1,Lemma12b;
end; then
n1: R c= R~`~` by RELAT_1:def 3;
for x,y being element st [x,y] in R~`~` holds [x,y] in R
proof
let x,y be element;
assume
X0: [x,y] in R~`~`; then
x1: x in field (R~`~`) & y in field (R~`~`) by RELAT_1:15;
not [x,y] in R~`~ by XBOOLE_0:def 5,X0; then
not [y,x] in R~` by RELAT_1:def 7; then
[y,x] in R~ by Lemma12b,x1;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:def 7;
end; then
R~`~` c= R by RELAT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by n1,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
theorem
for X being non empty set,
R being Relation of X holds
R~ = R`~`
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be Relation of X;
R = R~`~` by Tilde1;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Tilde3:
for X being non empty set,
R being Relation of X holds
R~`~ = R`
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be Relation of X;
R = R~`~` by Tilde1;
hence thesis;
end;
Lemma19:
for X,Y being set st X c= Y & X misses Y holds X = {} by XBOOLE_1:68;
begin :: Properties of Binary Relations
registration let X be set;
cluster connected being_linear-order for Order of X;
existence
proof
consider R being Relation such that
A1: R is well-ordering and
A2: field R = X by WELLSET1:6;
reconsider R as Relation of X by A2,PRE_POLY:18;
R is_reflexive_in X by A1,A2,RELAT_2:def 9;
then dom R = X by ORDERS_1:13;
then reconsider R as Order of X by A1,PARTFUN1:def 2;
take R;
thus thesis by A1,ORDERS_1:def 6;
end;
end;
theorem
for X being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of X holds
R~ is total
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be total reflexive Relation of X;
dom R = X by PARTFUN1:def 2; then
dom (R~) = X by RELAT_2:12;
hence thesis by PARTFUN1:def 2;
end;
theorem FieldTot:
for X being non empty set,
R being total Relation of X holds
field R = X
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be total Relation of X;
field R = X \/ rng R by PARTFUN1:def 2;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_1:12;
end;
theorem
for R being Relation holds
R is irreflexive iff
for x being element st x in field R holds not [x, x] in R
by RELAT_2:def 10,RELAT_2:def 2;
theorem LemSym:
for R being Relation holds
R is symmetric iff
for x, y being element st [x,y] in R holds [y,x] in R
proof
let R be Relation;
thus R is symmetric implies
for x, y being element st [x,y] in R holds [y,x] in R
proof
assume
A0: R is symmetric;
let x, y be element;
assume A1: [x, y] in R; then
x in field R & y in field R by RELAT_1:15;
hence [y, x] in R by A0, A1, RELAT_2:def 3,def 11;
end;
assume
A1: for x, y being element st [x,y] in R holds [y,x] in R;
set X = field R;
for x,y being element st
x in X & y in X & [x,y] in R holds [y,x] in R by A1;
hence R is symmetric by RELAT_2:def 11,RELAT_2:def 3;
end;
theorem LEM2a:
for X being set, R being Relation of X holds
R /\ R~ is symmetric
proof
let X be set, R be Relation of X;
(R /\ R~)~ = R~ /\ R~~ by RELAT_1:22
.= R~ /\ R;
hence thesis by RELAT_2:13;
end;
theorem LemAsym:
for R being Relation holds
R is asymmetric iff
for x, y being element st [x,y] in R holds not [y,x] in R
proof
let R be Relation;
A1: R is asymmetric implies
for x, y being element st [x,y] in R holds not [y,x] in R
proof
assume
Z0: R is asymmetric;
let x, y be element;
assume
B1: [x,y] in R; then
x in field R & y in field R by RELAT_1:15;
hence not [y,x] in R by Z0, RELAT_2:def 5,def 13,B1;
end;
(for x, y being element st [x,y] in R holds not [y,x] in R) implies
R is asymmetric
proof
assume
Z1: for x, y being element st [x,y] in R holds not [y,x] in R;
set X = field R;
for x,y being element st
x in X & y in X & [x,y] in R holds not [y,x] in R by Z1;
hence thesis by RELAT_2:def 13,RELAT_2:def 5;
end;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem Lemma5:
for a, b being element st a <> b holds
{[a, b]} is asymmetric
proof
let a, b be element;
assume
A0: a <> b;
set R = {[a, b]};
for x, y being element st [x, y] in R holds not [y, x] in R
proof
let x, y be element;
assume [x, y] in R; then
[x, y] = [a, b] by TARSKI:def 1; then
A1: x = a & y = b by XTUPLE_0:1;
assume [y, x] in R; then
[y, x] = [a, b] by TARSKI:def 1;
hence contradiction by A0, A1,XTUPLE_0:1;
end;
hence thesis by LemAsym;
end;
theorem LEM1:
for X being non empty set,
R being Relation of X holds
R /\ (R~)` is asymmetric
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be Relation of X;
set P = R /\ (R~)`;
assume not P is asymmetric; then
consider x, y being element such that
A1: [x,y] in P & [y,x] in P by LemAsym;
[x,y] in R & [x,y] in (R~)` by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
not [x,y] in R~ by XBOOLE_0:def 5; then
not [y,x] in R by RELAT_1:def 7;
hence thesis by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
theorem
for X being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of X holds
R /\ R~ is reflexive;
theorem LEM3b:
for X being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of X holds
R /\ R~ is total
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be total reflexive Relation of X;
A4: field R = X by FieldTot; then
A5: field (R~) = X by RELAT_1:21;
A6: id X c= R by A4,RELAT_2:1;
id field (R~) c= R~ by RELAT_2:1; then
id X c= R /\ R~ by XBOOLE_1:19, A6,A5; then
dom (id X) c= dom (R /\ R~) by RELAT_1:11;
hence thesis by PARTFUN1:def 2,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
theorem Lemma9:
for a, b being element st a <> b holds
{[a, b], [b, a]} is irreflexive symmetric
proof
let a, b be element;
assume
A0: a <> b;
reconsider R = {[a, b], [b, a]} as Relation;
a1: for x, y being element st [x,y] in R holds [y,x] in R
proof
let x, y be element;
assume [x,y] in R; then
[x,y] = [a,b] or [x,y] = [b,a] by TARSKI:def 2; then
x = a & y = b or x = b & y = a by XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis by TARSKI:def 2;
end;
for x being element st x in field R holds not [x, x] in R
proof
let x be element;
assume x in field R & [x, x] in R; then
[x, x] = [a, b] or [x, x] = [b, a] by TARSKI:def 2; then
x = a & x = b or x = b & x = a by XTUPLE_0:1;
hence contradiction by A0;
end;
hence thesis by a1,RELAT_2:def 10,RELAT_2:def 2,LemSym;
end;
theorem
for X being non empty set,
R being total Relation of X holds
for S being Relation of X holds
R \/ S is total
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be total Relation of X;
let S be Relation of X;
A1: dom R = X by PARTFUN1:def 2;
dom (R \/ S) = X \/ dom S by A1,XTUPLE_0:23;
hence thesis by PARTFUN1:def 2,XBOOLE_1:12;
end;
theorem
for X being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of X holds
R` /\ R~` is irreflexive symmetric
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be total reflexive Relation of X;
A0: id field R c= R by RELAT_2:1;
A1: dom R = X by PARTFUN1:def 2; then
dom (R~) = X by RELAT_2:12; then
rng R = X by RELAT_1:20; then
A3: id X /\ R` = {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:24,A0,A1;
id X /\ (R` /\ R~`) = (id X /\ R`) /\ R~` by XBOOLE_1:16; then
id X misses (R` /\ R~`) by XBOOLE_0:def 7,A3; then
z1: id field (R` /\ R~`) misses R` /\ R~` by XBOOLE_1:63,SYSREL:15;
for x, y being element st [x,y] in R` /\ R~` holds [y,x] in R` /\ R~`
proof
let x, y be element;
assume
B0: [x,y] in R` /\ R~`; then
B1: x is Element of X & y is Element of X by ZFMISC_1:87;
[x,y] in R` & [x,y] in R~` by XBOOLE_0:def 4,B0; then
not [x,y] in R & not [x,y] in R~ by XBOOLE_0:def 5; then
not [y,x] in R~ & not [y,x] in R by RELAT_1:def 7; then
[y,x] in R~` & [y,x] in R` by Lemma12b,B1;
hence [y,x] in R` /\ R~` by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
hence thesis by z1,LemSym,RELAT_2:2;
end;
theorem
for X being set, R being Relation of X st R is symmetric holds
R` is symmetric
proof
let X be set, R be Relation of X;
assume
A1: R is symmetric;
for x, y being element st [x,y] in R` holds [y,x] in R`
proof
let x,y be element;
assume
Z0: [x,y] in R`; then
xx: x in field R` & y in field R` by RELAT_1:15;
R /\ R` = {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23; then
Z1: not ([x,y] in R & [x,y] in R`) by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
assume not [y,x] in R`; then
[y,x] in R by Lemma12b,xx;
hence contradiction by Z0,Z1,LemSym,A1;
end;
hence R` is symmetric by LemSym;
end;
theorem LemAntisym:
for X being element, R being Relation holds
R is antisymmetric iff
for x, y being element st [x,y] in R & [y,x] in R holds x = y
proof
let X be element, R be Relation;
thus R is antisymmetric implies
for x, y being element st [x,y] in R & [y,x] in R holds x = y
proof
assume
A0: R is antisymmetric;
let x, y be element;
assume A1: [x,y] in R & [y,x] in R; then
x in field R & y in field R by RELAT_1:15;
hence x = y by A0, A1, RELAT_2:def 4,def 12;
end;
assume
A1: for x, y being element st [x,y] in R & [y,x] in R holds x = y;
set X = field R;
for x,y being element st
x in X & y in X & [x,y] in R & [y,x] in R holds x = y by A1;
hence R is antisymmetric by RELAT_2:def 12,def 4;
end;
theorem Lemma16:
for A being set,
R being asymmetric Relation of A holds
R \/ id A is antisymmetric
proof
let A be set, R be asymmetric Relation of A;
for x, y being element st [x,y] in R \/ (id A) &
[y,x] in R \/ (id A) holds x = y
proof
let x,y be element;
assume
A1: [x,y] in R \/ (id A) & [y,x] in R \/ (id A); then
Z0: [x,y] in R or [x,y] in id A by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
Z1: [y,x] in R or [y,x] in id A by XBOOLE_0:def 3,A1;
assume x <> y;
hence thesis by Z1,RELAT_1:def 10,LemAsym,Z0;
end;
hence thesis by LemAntisym;
end;
theorem LemCon:
for X being element, R being Relation holds
R is connected iff
for x, y being element st x <> y & x in field R & y in field R
holds [x,y] in R or [y,x] in R
proof
let X be element, R be Relation;
thus R is connected implies
for x, y being element st x <> y & x in field R & y in field R
holds [x,y] in R or [y,x] in R by RELAT_2:def 6,def 14;
assume
A1: for x, y being element st x <> y & x in field R & y in field R
holds [x,y] in R or [y,x] in R;
set X = field R;
for x,y being element st x in X & y in X & x <> y
holds [x,y] in R or [y,x] in R by A1;
hence R is connected by RELAT_2:def 14,def 6;
end;
theorem ConField:
for R being Relation holds
R is connected iff [:field R,field R:] = R \/ R~ \/ id (field R)
proof
let R be Relation;
hereby assume
R is connected; then
[:field R,field R:] \ id (field R) c= R \/ R~ by RELAT_2:28; then
Z0: [:field R,field R:] c= R \/ R~ \/ id (field R) by XBOOLE_1:44;
C1: R c= [:dom R, rng R:] by RELAT_1:7;
dom (R~) = rng R & rng (R~) = dom R by RELAT_1:20; then
C2: R~ c= [:rng R, dom R:] by RELAT_1:7;
set GG = [:rng R,rng R:] \/ [:dom R,dom R:];
set D = [:dom R,dom R:];
set RR = [:rng R,rng R:], DR = [:dom R,rng R:];
set RI = R \/ R~ \/ id field R;
R \/ R~ c= DR \/ [:rng R, dom R:] by XBOOLE_1:13,C1,C2; then
C4: RI c= DR \/ [:rng R, dom R:]
\/ [:field R, field R:] by XBOOLE_1:13;
Z1: [:field R, field R:] = D \/ [:dom R,rng R:] \/
[:rng R,dom R:] \/ RR by ZFMISC_1:98; then
RI c= DR \/ [:rng R, dom R:]
\/ (DR \/ D \/ ([:rng R,dom R:] \/
RR)) by C4,XBOOLE_1:4; then
RI c= [:rng R, dom R:] \/ (DR
\/ (DR \/ D \/ ([:rng R,dom R:] \/
RR))) by XBOOLE_1:4; then
RI c= [:rng R, dom R:] \/ (DR \/ (DR \/ (D \/ ([:rng R,dom R:] \/
RR)))) by XBOOLE_1:4; then
RI c= [:rng R, dom R:] \/ (DR
\/ DR \/ (D \/ ([:rng R,dom R:] \/ RR))) by XBOOLE_1:4; then
RI c= [:rng R, dom R:] \/ (
([:rng R,dom R:] \/ GG) \/ DR) by XBOOLE_1:4; then
RI c= [:rng R, dom R:] \/ (
[:rng R,dom R:] \/ (GG \/ DR)) by XBOOLE_1:4; then
RI c= [:rng R, dom R:] \/
[:rng R,dom R:] \/ (GG \/ DR) by XBOOLE_1:4; then
RI c= GG
\/ (DR \/ [:rng R,dom R:]) by XBOOLE_1:4; then
RI c= D \/ (DR \/ [:rng R,dom R:])
\/ RR by XBOOLE_1:4; then
RI c= [:field R,field R:] by Z1,XBOOLE_1:4;
hence [:field R,field R:] = R \/ R~ \/ id field R
by Z0, XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
assume [:field R,field R:] = R \/ R~ \/ id (field R); then
[:field R,field R:] \ id (field R) c= R \/ R~ \ id field R
by XBOOLE_1:40;
hence thesis by RELAT_2:28,XBOOLE_1:1;
end;
theorem Lemma17:
for A being set,
R being asymmetric Relation of A holds
R misses R~
proof
let A be set;
let R be asymmetric Relation of A;
for x,y being element holds not [x,y] in R /\ R~
proof
let x,y be element;
assume [x,y] in R /\ R~; then
[x,y] in R & [x,y] in R~ by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
[x,y] in R & [y,x] in R by RELAT_1:def 7;
hence contradiction by LemAsym;
end;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:37,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
end;
theorem Lemma20:
for R,P being Relation st R misses P & P is symmetric holds
R~ misses P
proof
let R,P be Relation;
assume R misses P; then
A0: R~ misses P~ by LemmaAuxIrr;
assume P is symmetric;
hence R~ misses P by A0,RELAT_2:13;
end;
theorem Lemma21:
for X being set, R being asymmetric Relation of X holds
R misses id X
proof
let X be set, R be asymmetric Relation of X;
for x,y being element holds not [x,y] in R /\ id X
proof
let x,y be element;
A0: x in field R implies not [x,x] in R by RELAT_2:def 2,def 10;
assume [x,y] in R /\ id X; then
[x,y] in R & [x,y] in id X by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence contradiction by A0,RELAT_1:def 10,RELAT_1:15;
end;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 7,RELAT_1:37;
end;
theorem Lemma22:
for X being set, R being asymmetric Relation of X holds
R * R misses id X
proof
let X be set, R be asymmetric Relation of X;
for x,y being element holds not [x,y] in R*R /\ id X
proof
let x,y be element;
assume [x,y] in R*R /\ id X; then
A1: [x,y] in R*R & [x,y] in id X by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
consider z being element such that
A2: [x,z] in R & [z,y] in R by RELAT_1:def 8;
x = y by RELAT_1:def 10,A1;
hence contradiction by LemAsym,A2;
end;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 7,RELAT_1:37;
end;
definition let X be set, R be Relation of X;
func SymCl R -> Relation of X equals
R \/ R~;
coherence;
end;
registration let X be set, R be total Relation of X;
cluster SymCl R -> total;
coherence
proof
dom SymCl R = dom R \/ dom (R~) by XTUPLE_0:23
.= X \/ dom (R~) by PARTFUN1:def 2
.= X by XBOOLE_1:12;
hence thesis by PARTFUN1:def 2;
end;
end;
registration let X be set,
R be Relation of X;
cluster SymCl R -> symmetric;
coherence;
end;
begin :: Preference Structures
definition
struct (1-sorted) PrefStr
(# carrier -> set,
PrefRel -> Relation of the carrier
#);
end;
definition
struct (PrefStr, TolStr) PIStr
(# carrier -> set,
PrefRel,
ToleranceRel -> Relation of the carrier
#);
end;
definition
struct (PIStr, RelStr, PrefStr) PreferenceStr
(# carrier -> set,
PrefRel,
ToleranceRel,
InternalRel -> (Relation of the carrier)
#);
end;
registration
cluster non empty strict for PIStr;
existence
proof
take PIStr(#{{}},{}({{}},{{}}),{}({{}},{{}})#);
thus thesis;
end;
cluster empty strict for PIStr;
existence
proof
take PIStr(#{},{}({},{}),{}({},{})#);
thus thesis;
end;
end;
registration
cluster non empty strict for PrefStr;
existence
proof
take PrefStr(#{{}},{}({{}},{{}})#);
thus thesis;
end;
cluster empty strict for PrefStr;
existence
proof
take PrefStr(#{},{}({},{})#);
thus thesis;
end;
cluster non empty strict for PIStr;
existence
proof
take PIStr(#{{}},{}({{}},{{}}),{}({{}},{{}})#);
thus thesis;
end;
cluster non empty strict for PreferenceStr;
existence
proof
take PreferenceStr(#{{}},{}({{}},{{}}),{}({{}},{{}}),{}({{}},{{}})#);
thus thesis;
end;
end;
definition let X be PreferenceStr;
attr X is preference-like means :PrefDef:
the PrefRel of X is asymmetric &
the ToleranceRel of X is Tolerance of the carrier of X &
the InternalRel of X is irreflexive symmetric &
the PrefRel of X, the ToleranceRel of X,
the InternalRel of X are_mutually_disjoint &
(the PrefRel of X) \/ (the PrefRel of X)~ \/
(the ToleranceRel of X) \/
(the InternalRel of X) = nabla the carrier of X;
end;
definition let X be set;
func PrefSpace X -> strict PreferenceStr equals
PreferenceStr (# X, {}(X,X), nabla X, {}(X,X) #);
coherence;
end;
Lemma1A:
for A being non empty set holds
PrefSpace A is non empty preference-like
proof
let A be non empty set;
set X = PrefSpace A;
(the PrefRel of X) \/ (the ToleranceRel of X) \/
(the InternalRel of X) = nabla the carrier of X;
hence thesis by Lemma1;
end;
registration
let A be non empty set;
cluster PrefSpace A -> non empty preference-like;
coherence by Lemma1A;
end;
registration
cluster non empty strict preference-like for PreferenceStr;
existence
proof
set A = the non empty set;
take PrefSpace A;
thus thesis;
end;
end;
definition
mode PreferenceSpace is preference-like PreferenceStr;
end;
registration
cluster empty -> preference-like for PreferenceStr;
coherence
proof
let X be PreferenceStr;
assume
A1: X is empty; then
(the PrefRel of X) /\ (the InternalRel of X) = {}; then
(the PrefRel of X) misses (the InternalRel of X) by XBOOLE_0:def 7; then
A3: the PrefRel of X, the ToleranceRel of X, the InternalRel of X
are_mutually_disjoint by A1;
s1: the PrefRel of X = {} by A1;
s2: (the PrefRel of X)~ = {} by A1;
(the InternalRel of X) = {} by A1;
hence X is preference-like by A1,A3,s1,s2;
end;
end;
registration
cluster PrefSpace {} -> empty preference-like;
coherence
proof
set X = PrefSpace {};
(the ToleranceRel of X) /\ (the InternalRel of X) = {}; then
the PrefRel of X, the ToleranceRel of X, the InternalRel of X
are_mutually_disjoint by XBOOLE_0:def 7;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
registration
cluster empty for PreferenceSpace;
existence
proof
take PrefSpace {};
thus thesis;
end;
end;
registration
let A be trivial non empty set;
cluster PrefSpace A -> trivial;
coherence;
end;
registration
let A be trivial non empty set;
cluster PrefSpace A -> non empty preference-like;
coherence;
end;
begin :: Constructing Examples
definition
let A be set;
func IdPrefSpace A -> strict PreferenceStr means :Def5:
the carrier of it = A &
the PrefRel of it = {} &
the ToleranceRel of it = id A &
the InternalRel of it = {};
existence
proof
reconsider R2 = id A as Relation of A;
take PreferenceStr (# A, {}(A,A), R2, {}(A,A) #);
thus thesis;
end;
uniqueness;
end;
IdPrefNot2:
for A be non trivial set holds
IdPrefSpace A is non preference-like
proof
let A be non trivial set;
set X = IdPrefSpace A;
A1: the PrefRel of X = {} by Def5;
A3: the ToleranceRel of X = id A by Def5;
A5: the InternalRel of X = {} by Def5;
S1: (the PrefRel of X) \/ (the PrefRel of X)~ \/
(the ToleranceRel of X) \/
(the InternalRel of X) = {}(A,A) \/ {}(A,A) \/
id A \/ {}(A,A) by A1, A3, A5
.= id A;
A = the carrier of X by Def5;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_1:1,S1;
end;
registration
let A be non trivial set;
cluster IdPrefSpace A -> non preference-like;
coherence by IdPrefNot2;
end;
definition
let A be 2-element set, a, b be Element of A;
func PrefSpace (A,a,b) -> strict PreferenceStr means :Def3:
the carrier of it = A &
the PrefRel of it = {[a, b]} &
the ToleranceRel of it = {[a, a], [b, b]} &
the InternalRel of it = {};
existence
proof
reconsider R1 = {[a, b]} as Relation of A;
reconsider R2 = {[a, a], [b, b]} as Relation of A;
take PreferenceStr (# A, R1, R2, {}(A,A) #);
thus thesis;
end;
uniqueness;
end;
theorem
for A be 2-element set, a, b be Element of A st a <> b holds
PrefSpace (A,a,b) is preference-like
proof
let A be 2-element set, a, b be Element of A;
assume
Z1: a <> b;
set X = PrefSpace (A,a,b);
a2: the PrefRel of X = {[a, b]} by Def3;
a3: the ToleranceRel of X = {[a, a], [b, b]} by Def3
.= id A by Lemma4,Z1
.= id (the carrier of X) by Def3;
the PrefRel of X = {[a, b]} & the ToleranceRel of X = {[a, a], [b, b]} &
the InternalRel of X = {}(A,A) by Def3; then
(the PrefRel of X) /\ (the InternalRel of X) = {} &
(the ToleranceRel of X) /\ (the InternalRel of X) = {} &
(the PrefRel of X) /\ (the ToleranceRel of X) = {}
by XBOOLE_0:def 7,Z1,Lemma8; then
A5: the PrefRel of X, the ToleranceRel of X, the InternalRel of X
are_mutually_disjoint by XBOOLE_0:def 7;
C4: the PrefRel of X = {[a, b]} by Def3; then
C5: (the PrefRel of X)~ = {[b, a]} by Lemma7;
C6: the ToleranceRel of X = {[a, a], [b, b]} by Def3;
C1: the carrier of X = A by Def3;
D1: A = {a,b} by Z1,Lemma3;
(the PrefRel of X) \/ (the PrefRel of X)~ \/
(the ToleranceRel of X) \/
(the InternalRel of X) = {[a, b]} \/ {[b, a]} \/ {[a, a], [b, b]} \/
{}(A,A) by Def3, C4, C5, C6
.= {[a, a], [a, b], [b, a], [b, b]} by Lemma6
.= nabla the carrier of X by C1,D1,ZFMISC_1:122;
hence thesis by a2, a3, A5,Def3,Lemma5,Z1;
end;
definition
let A be non empty set, a, b be Element of A;
func IntPrefSpace (A,a,b) -> strict PreferenceStr means :Def4:
the carrier of it = A &
the PrefRel of it = {} &
the ToleranceRel of it = {[a, a], [b, b]} &
the InternalRel of it = {[a, b], [b, a]};
existence
proof
reconsider R1 = {[a, a], [b, b]},
R2 = {[a, b], [b, a]} as Relation of A;
take PreferenceStr (# A, {}(A,A), R1, R2 #);
thus thesis;
end;
uniqueness;
end;
theorem
for A be 2-element set, a, b be Element of A st a <> b holds
IntPrefSpace (A,a,b) is non empty preference-like
proof
let A be 2-element set, a, b be Element of A;
assume
Z1: a <> b;
set X = IntPrefSpace (A,a,b);
a3: the ToleranceRel of X = {[a, a], [b, b]} by Def4
.= id A by Lemma4,Z1
.= id (the carrier of X) by Def4;
a4: the InternalRel of X = {[a, b], [b, a]} by Def4;
the PrefRel of X = {}(A, A) & the ToleranceRel of X = {[a, a], [b, b]} &
the InternalRel of X = {[a, b], [b, a]} by Def4; then
(the PrefRel of X) /\ (the InternalRel of X) = {} &
(the ToleranceRel of X) /\ (the InternalRel of X) = {} &
(the PrefRel of X) /\ (the ToleranceRel of X) = {}
by Z1,Lemma11,XBOOLE_0:def 7; then
A5: the PrefRel of X, the ToleranceRel of X, the InternalRel of X
are_mutually_disjoint by XBOOLE_0:def 7;
C4: the PrefRel of X = {}(A, A) by Def4;
C6: the ToleranceRel of X = {[a, a], [b, b]} by Def4;
C1: the carrier of X = A by Def4;
C2: the InternalRel of X = {[a, b], [b, a]} by Def4;
D1: A = {a,b} by Z1,Lemma3;
(the PrefRel of X) \/ (the PrefRel of X)~ \/
(the ToleranceRel of X) \/
(the InternalRel of X) = {}(A, A) \/ {}(A, A) \/ {[a, a], [b, b]} \/
{[a, b], [b, a]} by C2, C4, C6
.= {[a, a], [a, b], [b, a], [b, b]} by Lemma10
.= nabla the carrier of X by C1,D1,ZFMISC_1:122;
hence thesis by Def4,a3,a4,A5,Lemma9,Z1;
end;
begin :: Characteristic Relation of a Preference Space
definition let P be PIStr;
func CharRel P -> Relation of the carrier of P equals
(the PrefRel of P) \/ (the ToleranceRel of P);
coherence;
end;
definition let P be PIStr;
attr P is PI-preference-like means
the PrefRel of P is asymmetric &
the ToleranceRel of P is Tolerance of the carrier of P &
(the PrefRel of P) /\ (the ToleranceRel of P) = {} &
(the PrefRel of P) \/ (the PrefRel of P)~ \/
(the ToleranceRel of P) = nabla the carrier of P;
end;
registration
cluster PI-preference-like for non empty strict PIStr;
existence
proof
set P = PIStr(#{{}},{}({{}},{{}}),id {{}}#);
reconsider P as non empty strict PIStr;
take P;
AB: the ToleranceRel of P = {[{},{}]} by SYSREL:13;
(the PrefRel of P) \/ ((the PrefRel of P) qua Relation)~ = {};
hence thesis by ZFMISC_1:29,AB;
end;
cluster PI-preference-like for empty strict PIStr;
existence
proof
set P = PIStr(#{},{}({},{}),{}({},{})#);
reconsider P as empty strict PIStr;
take P;
thus thesis;
end;
end;
theorem
for P being non empty PIStr st P is PI-preference-like holds
the PrefRel of P = CharRel P /\ ((CharRel P)~)`
proof
let P be non empty PIStr;
assume
A1: P is PI-preference-like;
set R = the PrefRel of P, T = the ToleranceRel of P, C = CharRel P;
for x, y being element holds [x,y] in R iff [x,y] in C /\ (C~)`
proof
let x, y be element;
B1: [x,y] in R implies [x,y] in C /\ (C~)`
proof
assume
Z0: [x,y] in R; then
k1: x in field R & y in field R by RELAT_1:15;
Z1: not [x,y] in T by Z0, XBOOLE_0:def 4,A1;
([x,y] in R or [x,y] in T) & not [y,x] in R & not [y,x] in T
by LemAsym,Z0,A1,Z1,LemSym; then
cc: [x,y] in (R \/ T) & not [y,x] in (R \/ T) by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
[x,y] in C & not [x,y] in C~ by RELAT_1:def 7; then
[x,y] in (C~)` by Lemma12b,k1;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 4,cc;
end;
[x,y] in C /\ (C~)` implies [x,y] in R
proof
assume
cc: [x,y] in C /\ (C~)`; then
[x,y] in C & [x,y] in (C~)` by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
not [x,y] in C~ by XBOOLE_0:def 5; then
[x,y] in C & not [y,x] in C by RELAT_1:def 7,cc,XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
[x,y] in R & not [y,x] in R & not [y,x] in T or [x,y] in T &
not [y,x] in R & not [y,x] in T by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by LemSym,A1;
end;
hence thesis by B1;
end;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
theorem
for P being non empty PIStr st P is PI-preference-like holds
the ToleranceRel of P = CharRel P /\ (CharRel P)~
proof
let P be non empty PIStr;
assume
A1: P is PI-preference-like;
set R = the PrefRel of P, T = the ToleranceRel of P, C = CharRel P;
for x, y being element holds [x,y] in T iff [x,y] in C /\ C~
proof
let x, y be element;
Z1: [x,y] in T implies [x,y] in C /\ C~
proof
assume
A3: [x,y] in T; then
A2: x in field T & y in field T by RELAT_1:15;
[x,y] in T & [y,x] in T by A1,A3, A2, RELAT_2:def 3,def 11; then
[x,y] in R \/ T & [y,x] in R \/ T by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
[x,y] in C & [x,y] in C~ by RELAT_1:def 7;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
[x,y] in C /\ C~ implies [x,y] in T
proof
assume [x,y] in C /\ C~; then
[x,y] in C & [x,y] in C~ by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
[x,y] in R \/ T & [y,x] in R \/ T by RELAT_1:def 7; then
([x,y] in R & [y,x] in R) or ([x,y] in R & [y,x] in T) or
([x,y] in T & [y,x] in R) or ([x,y] in T & [y,x] in T)
by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence [x,y] in T by LemSym,A1,LemAsym;
end;
hence thesis by Z1;
end;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
theorem
for P being non empty PreferenceStr st P is preference-like holds
the PrefRel of P = CharRel P /\ ((CharRel P)~)`
proof
let P be non empty PreferenceStr;
assume
A1: P is preference-like;
set R = the PrefRel of P, T = the ToleranceRel of P, C = CharRel P;
for x, y being element holds [x,y] in R iff [x,y] in C /\ (C~)`
proof
let x, y be element;
B1: [x,y] in R implies [x,y] in C /\ (C~)`
proof
assume
Z0: [x,y] in R; then
k1: x in field R & y in field R by RELAT_1:15;
R, T, the InternalRel of P are_mutually_disjoint by A1; then
R /\ T = {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7; then
not [x,y] in T by Z0,XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
([x,y] in R or [x,y] in T) & not [y,x] in R & not [y,x] in T
by LemAsym,A1,Z0,LemSym; then
cc: [x,y] in (R \/ T) & not [y,x] in (R \/ T) by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
[x,y] in C & not [x,y] in C~ by RELAT_1:def 7; then
[x,y] in (C~)` by Lemma12b,k1;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 4,cc;
end;
[x,y] in C /\ (C~)` implies [x,y] in R
proof
assume
cc: [x,y] in C /\ (C~)`; then
[x,y] in C & [x,y] in (C~)` by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
not [x,y] in C~ by XBOOLE_0:def 5; then
[x,y] in C & not [y,x] in C by RELAT_1:def 7,cc,XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
[x,y] in R & not [y,x] in R & not [y,x] in T or [x,y] in T &
not [y,x] in R & not [y,x] in T by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by LemSym,A1;
end;
hence thesis by B1;
end;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
theorem
for P being non empty PreferenceStr st P is preference-like holds
the ToleranceRel of P = CharRel P /\ (CharRel P)~
proof
let P be non empty PreferenceStr;
assume
A1: P is preference-like;
set R = the PrefRel of P, T = the ToleranceRel of P, C = CharRel P;
for x, y being element holds [x,y] in T iff [x,y] in C /\ C~
proof
let x, y be element;
Z1: [x,y] in T implies [x,y] in C /\ C~
proof
assume
A3: [x,y] in T; then
A2: x in field T & y in field T by RELAT_1:15;
[x,y] in T & [y,x] in T by A1,A3, A2, RELAT_2:def 3,def 11; then
[x,y] in R \/ T & [y,x] in R \/ T by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
[x,y] in C & [x,y] in C~ by RELAT_1:def 7;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
[x,y] in C /\ C~ implies [x,y] in T
proof
assume [x,y] in C /\ C~; then
[x,y] in C & [x,y] in C~ by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
[x,y] in R \/ T & [y,x] in R \/ T by RELAT_1:def 7; then
([x,y] in R & [y,x] in R) or ([x,y] in R & [y,x] in T) or
([x,y] in T & [y,x] in R) or ([x,y] in T & [y,x] in T)
by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence [x,y] in T by LemSym,A1,LemAsym;
end;
hence thesis by Z1;
end;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
theorem Th2:
for P being non empty PreferenceStr st P is preference-like holds
the InternalRel of P = (CharRel P)` /\ ((CharRel P)~)`
proof
let P be non empty PreferenceStr;
assume
A1: P is preference-like;
set R = the PrefRel of P, T = the ToleranceRel of P,
I = the InternalRel of P, C = CharRel P;
for x, y being element holds [x,y] in I iff [x,y] in C` /\ (C~)`
proof
let x, y be element;
Z1: [x,y] in I implies [x,y] in C` /\ (C~)`
proof
assume
A3: [x,y] in I; then
k1: x in field I & y in field I by RELAT_1:15;
R, T, I are_mutually_disjoint by A1; then
B1: I /\ T = {} & I /\ R = {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7; then
(not [x,y] in I or not [x,y] in T) &
(not [x,y] in I or not [x,y] in R) by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
not [x,y] in R \/ T by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
B3: [x,y] in C` by Lemma12b, k1;
[y,x] in I by A3,LemSym,A1; then
not [y,x] in T & not [y,x] in R by B1,XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
not [y,x] in R \/ T by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
not [x,y] in C~ by RELAT_1:def 7; then
[x,y] in (C~)` by Lemma12b, k1;
hence thesis by B3, XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
[x,y] in C` /\ (C~)` implies [x,y] in I
proof
assume
c0: [x,y] in C` /\ (C~)`; then
c1: [x,y] in C` & [x,y] in (C~)` by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
not [x,y] in C by XBOOLE_0:def 5; then
J2: not [x,y] in R & not [x,y] in T by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
J3: not [x,y] in C~ by XBOOLE_0:def 5,c1;
C~ = (R~) \/ (T~) by RELAT_1:23; then
not [x,y] in R~ & not [x,y] in T~ by J3,XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
not [x,y] in R \/ R~ by XBOOLE_0:def 3,J2; then
not [x,y] in R \/ R~ \/ T by J2,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 3, c0,A1;
end;
hence thesis by Z1;
end;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
begin :: Generating Preference Space from Arbitrary (Characteristic) Relation
definition let X be set,
R be Relation of X;
func Aux R -> Relation of X equals
SymCl (((R /\ R~`) \/ (R /\ R~`)~ \/ (R /\ R~))`);
coherence;
end;
theorem SumNabla2:
for X being non empty set,
R being Relation of X holds
(R /\ (R~)`) \/ (R /\ (R~)`)~ \/ (R /\ R~) \/ Aux R = nabla X
proof
let X be non empty set,
R be Relation of X;
set P = R /\ (R~)`;
set J = R /\ R~;
(P \/ P~ \/ J)` c= Aux R by XBOOLE_1:7; then
P \/ P~ \/ J \/ (P \/ P~ \/ J)` c= P \/ P~ \/ J \/ Aux R
by XBOOLE_1:13; then
[#][:X,X:] c= P \/ P~ \/ J \/ Aux R by SUBSET_1:10;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
theorem AuxEq:
for X being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of X holds
Aux R = (R~` /\ R`) \/ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))
proof
let X be non empty set;
let R be total reflexive Relation of X;
set Z1 = ((R /\ R~`) \/ (R /\ R~`)~ \/ (R /\ R~))`;
z1: Z1 = ((R /\ R~`) \/ (R /\ R~`)~)` /\ (R /\ R~)` by XBOOLE_1:53
.= ((R /\ R~`) \/ (R /\ R~`)~)` /\ (R` \/ R~`) by XBOOLE_1:54
.= ((R /\ R~`)` /\ (R /\ R~`)~`) /\ (R` \/ R~`) by XBOOLE_1:53
.= ((R` \/ R~``) /\ (R /\ R~`)~`) /\ (R` \/ R~`) by XBOOLE_1:54
.= ((R` \/ R~``) /\ (R~ /\ R~`~)`) /\ (R` \/ R~`) by RELAT_1:22
.= (R~` \/ R~`~`) /\ (R` \/ R~) /\ (R` \/ R~`) by XBOOLE_1:54
.= (R~` \/ R~`~`) /\ ((R` \/ R~) /\ (R` \/ R~`)) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R~` \/ R~`~`) /\ (R` \/ (R~ /\ R~`)) by XBOOLE_1:24
.= (R~` \/ R~`~`) /\ (R` \/ {}) by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= (R~` \/ R) /\ R` by Tilde1;
set Z2 = ((R /\ R~`) \/ (R /\ R~`)~ \/ (R /\ R~))`~;
z2: Z2 = (((R /\ R~`) \/ (R /\ R~`)~)` /\ (R /\ R~)`)~ by XBOOLE_1:53
.= (((R /\ R~`)` /\ (R /\ R~`)~`) /\ (R /\ R~)`)~ by XBOOLE_1:53
.= (((R` \/ R~``) /\ (R /\ R~`)~`) /\ (R /\ R~)`)~ by XBOOLE_1:54
.= (((R` \/ R~) /\ (R /\ R~`)~`))~ /\ (R /\ R~)`~ by RELAT_1:22
.= ((R` \/ R~)~ /\ (R /\ R~`)~`~) /\ (R /\ R~)`~ by RELAT_1:22
.= (R`~ \/ R~~) /\ (R /\ R~`)~`~ /\ (R /\ R~)`~ by RELAT_1:23
.= (R`~ \/ R) /\ (R /\ R~`)~`~ /\ (R` \/ R~`)~ by XBOOLE_1:54
.= (R`~ \/ R) /\ (R /\ R~`)~`~ /\ (R`~ \/ R~`~) by RELAT_1:23
.= (R`~ \/ R) /\ (R~ /\ R~`~)`~ /\ (R`~ \/ R~`~) by RELAT_1:22
.= (R`~ \/ R) /\ (R~` \/ R~`~`)~ /\ (R`~ \/ R~`~) by XBOOLE_1:54
.= (R`~ \/ R) /\ (R~`~ \/ R~`~`~) /\ (R`~ \/ R~`~) by RELAT_1:23
.= (R`~ \/ R) /\ (R~`~ \/ R~) /\ (R`~ \/ R~`~) by Tilde1
.= (R`~ \/ R) /\ (R` \/ R~) /\ (R`~ \/ R~`~) by Tilde3
.= (R`~ \/ R) /\ (R` \/ R~) /\ (R`~ \/ R`) by Tilde3
.= (R`~ \/ R`) /\ (R`~ \/ R) /\ (R` \/ R~) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R`~ \/ (R` /\ R)) /\ (R` \/ R~) by XBOOLE_1:24
.= (R`~ \/ {}) /\ (R` \/ R~) by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~);
Aux R = ((R~` /\ R`) \/ (R /\ R`)) \/ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))
by z1,z2,XBOOLE_1:23
.= ((R~` /\ R`) \/ {}) \/ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))
by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= (R~` /\ R`) \/ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~));
hence thesis;
end;
theorem AuxEq2:
for X being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of X holds
(R /\ R~`) misses Aux R
proof
let X be non empty set;
let R be total reflexive Relation of X;
set A = R /\ (R~)`;
A /\ Aux R = R /\ R~` /\ ((R~` /\ R`) \/ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by AuxEq
.= (R /\ R~` /\ (R~` /\ R`)) \/
(R /\ R~` /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by XBOOLE_1:23
.= (R /\ R~` /\ R~` /\ R`) \/
(R /\ R~` /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R /\ (R~` /\ R~`) /\ R`) \/
(R /\ R~` /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R` /\ R /\ R~`) \/
(R /\ R~` /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= ({} /\ R~`) \/ (R /\ R~` /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~)))
by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= R /\ R~` /\ ((R`~ /\ R`) \/ (R`~ /\ R~)) by XBOOLE_1:23
.= ((R`~ /\ R`) /\ (R /\ R~`)) \/
(R /\ R~` /\ (R`~ /\ R~)) by XBOOLE_1:23
.= (R`~ /\ R` /\ R /\ R~`) \/
(R /\ R~` /\ (R`~ /\ R~)) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R`~ /\ (R` /\ R) /\ R~`) \/
(R /\ R~` /\ (R`~ /\ R~)) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R`~ /\ {} /\ R~`) \/ (R /\ R~` /\ (R`~ /\ R~))
by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= R /\ (R~` /\ (R~ /\ R`~)) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= R /\ (R~` /\ R~ /\ R`~) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= R /\ ({} /\ R`~) by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= {};
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 7;
end;
theorem AuxIrr:
for X being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of X holds
Aux R is irreflexive symmetric
proof
let X be non empty set;
let R be total reflexive Relation of X;
set P = R /\ R~`,
T = R /\ R~,
C = ((R /\ R~`) \/ (R /\ R~`)~ \/ (R /\ R~))`;
set Y = field Aux R;
for x,y being element st [x,y] in id Y holds [x,y] in T
proof
let x,y be element;
assume [x,y] in id Y; then
A0: x in Y & x = y by RELAT_1:def 10;
field R = X by ORDERS_1:12; then
A1: [x,x] in R by A0,RELAT_2:def 1,def 9; then
[x,x] in R~ by RELAT_1:def 7;
hence thesis by A0,A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end; then
x4: id Y c= P \/ P~ \/ T by XBOOLE_1:10,RELAT_1:def 3; then
Y2: id Y /\ (P \/ P~ \/ T)` = {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7,XBOOLE_1:85;
(id Y qua Relation)~ misses (P \/ P~ \/ T)`~
by x4,LemmaAuxIrr,XBOOLE_1:85; then
Y3: (id Y qua Relation) /\ (P \/ P~ \/ T)`~ = {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7;
id Y /\ Aux R = {} \/ {} by Y2,Y3,XBOOLE_1:23;
hence thesis by RELAT_2:2,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
end;
registration
let X be non empty set,
R be total reflexive Relation of X;
cluster Aux R -> irreflexive symmetric;
coherence by AuxIrr;
end;
theorem AuxEq3:
for X being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of X holds
(R /\ R~) misses Aux R
proof
let X be non empty set;
let R be total reflexive Relation of X;
set A = R /\ R~;
A /\ Aux R = R /\ R~ /\ ((R~` /\ R`) \/ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by AuxEq
.= (R /\ R~ /\ (R~` /\ R`)) \/
(R /\ R~ /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by XBOOLE_1:23
.= (R /\ R~ /\ R~` /\ R`) \/
(R /\ R~ /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R /\ (R~ /\ R~`) /\ R`) \/
(R /\ R~ /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R /\ {} /\ R`) \/
(R /\ R~ /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= (R /\ (R~ /\ (R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~)))) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R /\ (R~ /\ R`~ /\ (R` \/ R~))) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R /\ (R~ /\ R`~) /\ (R` \/ R~)) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R /\ (R~ /\ R`~) /\ R`) \/
(R /\ (R~ /\ R`~) /\ R~) by XBOOLE_1:23
.= (R` /\ R /\ (R~ /\ R`~)) \/
(R /\ (R~ /\ R`~) /\ R~) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= ({} /\ (R~ /\ R`~)) \/
(R /\ (R~ /\ R`~) /\ R~) by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= (R /\ ((R`~ /\ R~) /\ R~)) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= (R /\ (R`~ /\ (R~ /\ R~))) by XBOOLE_1:16
.= R /\ (R` /\ R)~ by RELAT_1:22
.= R /\ ({} qua Relation)~ by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= {};
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 7;
end;
theorem MutuDis2:
for X being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of X holds
R /\ (R~)`, R /\ R~, Aux R are_mutually_disjoint
proof
let X be non empty set;
let R be total reflexive Relation of X;
set A = R /\ (R~)`,
B = R /\ R~,
C = Aux R;
(R /\ (R~)`) /\ (R /\ R~) = R /\ (R~` /\ R~) by XBOOLE_1:116
.= R /\ {} by XBOOLE_0:def 7,SUBSET_1:23
.= {};
hence thesis by AuxEq3,XBOOLE_0:def 7,AuxEq2;
end;
definition
let X be set;
let P be Relation of X;
func CharPrefSpace P -> strict PreferenceStr means :Def55:
the carrier of it = X &
the PrefRel of it = P /\ (P~)` &
the ToleranceRel of it = P /\ P~ &
the InternalRel of it = Aux P;
existence
proof
reconsider R1 = P /\ (P~)`,
R2 = P /\ P~,
R3 = Aux P as Relation of X;
take PreferenceStr (# X, R1, R2, R3 #);
thus thesis;
end;
uniqueness;
end;
theorem CharIsPref:
for A being non empty set,
R being total reflexive Relation of A holds
CharPrefSpace R is preference-like
proof
let A be non empty set,
R be total reflexive Relation of A;
set X = CharPrefSpace R;
set P = X;
XX: the carrier of P = A &
the PrefRel of P = R /\ (R~)` &
the ToleranceRel of P = R /\ R~ &
the InternalRel of P = Aux R by Def55;
thus thesis by LEM1,XX,SumNabla2,MutuDis2,LEM3b,LEM2a;
end;
registration
let X be non empty set;
let P be Relation of X;
cluster CharPrefSpace P -> non empty;
coherence by Def55;
end;
registration
let X be non empty set;
let P be total reflexive Relation of X;
cluster CharPrefSpace P -> preference-like;
coherence by CharIsPref;
end;
begin :: Flat Preference Spaces
definition let P be PreferenceStr;
attr P is flat means
the ToleranceRel of P = id the carrier of P &
ex a being Element of P st
the PrefRel of P = [:{a}, (the carrier of P) \ {a}:] &
the InternalRel of P =
[:(the carrier of P) \ {a}, (the carrier of P) \ {a}:];
end;
Lemma1C:
for A being trivial non empty set holds
the ToleranceRel of PrefSpace A = id the carrier of PrefSpace A
proof
let A be trivial non empty set;
set a = the Element of A;
set X = PrefSpace A;
reconsider C = {a} as Subset of A;
the ToleranceRel of X = {[a, a]} by ZFMISC_1:132; then
the ToleranceRel of X = id {a} by SYSREL:13;
hence thesis by ZFMISC_1:132;
end;
ZZ:
for A being empty set holds
IdPrefSpace A = PrefSpace A
proof
let A be empty set;
A1: the carrier of IdPrefSpace A = the carrier of PrefSpace A by Def5;
A2: the ToleranceRel of IdPrefSpace A = id the carrier of PrefSpace A by Def5
.= the ToleranceRel of PrefSpace A;
the InternalRel of IdPrefSpace A = the InternalRel of PrefSpace A by Def5;
hence thesis by A1,A2;
end;
theorem
for A being trivial set holds
IdPrefSpace A = PrefSpace A
proof
let A be trivial set;
per cases;
suppose
A0: A is non empty;
A1: the carrier of IdPrefSpace A = the carrier of PrefSpace A by Def5;
A2: the ToleranceRel of IdPrefSpace A = id the carrier of PrefSpace A
by Def5
.= the ToleranceRel of PrefSpace A by Lemma1C,A0;
the InternalRel of IdPrefSpace A = the InternalRel of PrefSpace A
by Def5;
hence thesis by A1,A2,Def5;
end;
suppose A is empty;
hence thesis by ZZ;
end;
end;
registration
let A be trivial non empty set;
cluster IdPrefSpace A -> non empty preference-like;
coherence
proof
set X = IdPrefSpace A;
set a = the Element of A;
reconsider C = {a} as Subset of A;
s: A = {a} by ZFMISC_1:132; then
B1: the ToleranceRel of X = id {a} by Def5;
B2: C = the carrier of X by Def5,s;
a5: the PrefRel of X = {}(A,A) & the InternalRel of X = {}(A,A) by Def5;
Z0: (the PrefRel of X) = {}(A,A) by Def5;
Z1: the ToleranceRel of X = {[the Element of A, the Element of A]}
by B1,SYSREL:13
.= [:{a},{a}:] by ZFMISC_1:29;
Z2: the InternalRel of X = {}(A,A) by Def5;
(the PrefRel of X) \/ (the PrefRel of X)~ \/
(the ToleranceRel of X) \/
(the InternalRel of X) = {}(A,A) \/ {}(A,A) \/ [:{a},{a}:] \/ {}(A,A)
by Z2,Z0,Z1
.= nabla the carrier of X by B2;
hence thesis by B1,B2,a5,Lemma1;
end;
end;
registration
let A be trivial non empty set;
cluster IdPrefSpace A -> flat;
coherence
proof
set P = IdPrefSpace A;
set a = the Element of A;
B3: A = {a} by ZFMISC_1:132;
B2: A = the carrier of P by Def5;
ex a being Element of P st
the PrefRel of P = [:{a}, ((the carrier of P) \ {a}):] &
the InternalRel of P =
[:(the carrier of P) \ {a},((the carrier of P) \ {a}):]
proof
reconsider b = a as Element of P by Def5;
take b;
B4: (the carrier of P) \ {a} = {} by XBOOLE_1:37,B2,B3;
s1: the PrefRel of P = {}(A,A) by Def5;
the InternalRel of P = {}(A,A) by Def5;
hence thesis by s1,B4;
end;
hence thesis by B2,Def5;
end;
end;
begin :: Tournament Preference Spaces
definition let P be PreferenceStr;
attr P is tournament-like means
the ToleranceRel of P = id the carrier of P &
the InternalRel of P = {};
end;
registration
cluster empty -> tournament-like for PreferenceStr;
coherence;
end;
registration
cluster tournament-like -> void for PreferenceStr;
coherence;
end;
registration
cluster tournament-like for empty PreferenceSpace;
existence
proof
take PrefSpace {};
thus thesis;
end;
cluster tournament-like for non empty PreferenceSpace;
existence
proof
set A = the trivial non empty set;
reconsider P = PrefSpace A as non empty PreferenceSpace;
take P;
thus thesis by Lemma1C;
end;
end;
theorem :: The Connection Between Tournament Spaces and Orders
for P being non empty PreferenceSpace holds
P is tournament-like iff
CharRel P is connected antisymmetric total
proof
let P be non empty PreferenceSpace;
A1: P is tournament-like implies CharRel P is connected antisymmetric
total
proof
assume
Z0: P is tournament-like;
w0: the PrefRel of P is asymmetric by PrefDef;
for x, y being element st x <> y & x in field (CharRel P) &
y in field (CharRel P) holds [x,y] in CharRel P or [y,x] in CharRel P
proof
let x,y be element;
assume
W1: x <> y;
t1: (the PrefRel of P) \/ (the PrefRel of P)~ \/
(id the carrier of P) \/ {}
= nabla the carrier of P by Z0,PrefDef;
T2: not [x,y] in id the carrier of P & not [y,x] in id the carrier of P
by W1, RELAT_1:def 10;
assume x in field (CharRel P) & y in field (CharRel P); then
[x,y] in [:the carrier of P, the carrier of P:] &
[y,x] in [:the carrier of P, the carrier of P:]
by ZFMISC_1:87; then
[x,y] in (the PrefRel of P) \/ (the PrefRel of P)~ &
[y,x] in (the PrefRel of P) \/ (the PrefRel of P)~
by t1,T2, XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
[x,y] in the PrefRel of P or [x,y] in (the PrefRel of P)~ &
[y,x] in the PrefRel of P or [y,x] in (the PrefRel of P)~
by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
[x,y] in the PrefRel of P or [y,x] in the PrefRel of P
by RELAT_1:def 7;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
hence CharRel P is connected by LemCon;
dom CharRel P = dom (the PrefRel of P) \/ dom (the ToleranceRel of P)
by XTUPLE_0:23
.= the carrier of P by XBOOLE_1:12,Z0;
hence thesis by w0,PARTFUN1:def 2,Z0,Lemma16;
end;
CharRel P is connected total antisymmetric implies
P is tournament-like
proof
assume
S1: CharRel P is connected;
assume
S3: CharRel P is total;
assume
S2: CharRel P is antisymmetric;
set PP = the PrefRel of P, J = the ToleranceRel of P,
X = the carrier of P, I = the InternalRel of P;
set RT = PP \/ J;
KK: RT = CharRel P;
kk: dom RT = X by PARTFUN1:def 2,S3; then
k1: dom RT \/ rng RT = X by XBOOLE_1:12;
B0: (PP \/ J) /\ (PP \/ J)~ c= id dom RT by RELAT_2:22,S2;
for x,y being element holds
[x,y] in id X implies [x,y] in (PP \/ J) /\ (PP \/ J)~
proof
let x,y be element;
assume
n1: [x,y] in id X; then
N1: x in X & x = y by RELAT_1:def 10;
assume not [x,y] in (PP \/ J) /\ (PP \/ J)~; then
not ([x,y] in (PP \/ J) & [x,y] in (PP \/ J)~)
by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
not ([x,y] in (PP \/ J) & [x,y] in (PP~ \/ J~)) by RELAT_1:23; then
not (([x,y] in PP or [x,y] in J) & ([x,y] in PP~ or [x,y] in J~))
by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
N2: not [x,x] in J by N1,RELAT_1:def 7;
J is total by PrefDef; then
N3: dom J = X by PARTFUN1:def 2;
field J = dom J \/ rng J
.= X by N3,XBOOLE_1:12; then
N4: x in field J by n1,RELAT_1:def 10;
J is reflexive by PrefDef;
hence contradiction by N2,N4,RELAT_2:def 1,def 9;
end; then
id X c= (PP \/ J) /\ (PP \/ J)~ by RELAT_1:def 3; then
B1: (PP \/ J) /\ (PP \/ J)~ = id X by B0,XBOOLE_0:def 10,kk;
Y1: (PP \/ J)~ = PP~ \/ J~ by RELAT_1:23;
J is symmetric by PrefDef; then
(PP \/ J) /\ (PP~ \/ J) = id X by B1,Y1,RELAT_2:13; then
Y3: PP /\ PP~ \/ J = id X by XBOOLE_1:24;
PP is asymmetric by PrefDef; then
a3: PP /\ PP~ = {} by Lemma17,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
[:field RT,field RT:] = RT \/ RT~ \/ id field RT by S1,ConField; then
df: [:X,X:] = J \/ (J \/ (PP \/ RT~)) by XBOOLE_1:4,a3,k1,Y3
.= (J \/ J) \/ (PP \/ RT~) by XBOOLE_1:4
.= RT \/ RT~ by XBOOLE_1:4;
I = RT` /\ (RT~)` by KK,Th2; then
I = ({}[:X,X:])`` by df,XBOOLE_1:53
.= {}[:X,X:];
hence thesis by a3,Y3;
end;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
begin :: Total Preference Spaces
definition let P be PreferenceStr;
attr P is total means
the PrefRel of P is transitive &
the ToleranceRel of P = id the carrier of P &
the InternalRel of P = {};
end;
registration
cluster total -> void for PreferenceStr;
coherence;
end;
registration
cluster total -> tournament-like for PreferenceStr;
coherence;
end;
registration
cluster PrefSpace {} -> total;
coherence;
end;
registration
let A be set;
cluster IdPrefSpace A -> total;
coherence
proof
set P = IdPrefSpace A;
the carrier of P = A by Def5;
hence thesis by Def5;
end;
end;
registration
let A be trivial non empty set;
cluster PrefSpace A -> total;
coherence
proof
set P = PrefSpace A;
set a = the Element of A;
the ToleranceRel of P = {[a, a]} by ZFMISC_1:132
.= id {a} by SYSREL:13
.= id the carrier of P by ZFMISC_1:132;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
registration
cluster total for empty PreferenceSpace;
existence
proof
take PrefSpace {};
thus thesis;
end;
cluster total for non empty PreferenceSpace;
existence
proof
set A = the trivial non empty set;
reconsider P = PrefSpace A as non empty PreferenceSpace;
take P;
thus thesis;
end;
end;
theorem
for P being non empty PreferenceSpace holds
P is total iff
CharRel P is connected Order of the carrier of P
proof
let P be non empty PreferenceSpace;
Z1: P is total implies CharRel P is connected Order of the carrier of P
proof
assume
A1: P is total;
set R = the PrefRel of P,
T = the ToleranceRel of P,
X = the carrier of P,
I = the InternalRel of P,
C = CharRel P;
k2: R \/ R~ \/ T \/ I = nabla X by PrefDef;
T is total by PrefDef; then
A5: field T = X by ORDERS_1:12;
T is symmetric by PrefDef; then
Y5: T = T~ by RELAT_2:13;
R is asymmetric by PrefDef; then
Y6: R /\ R~ = {} by Lemma17,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
a4: field (R \/ T) = field R \/ field T by RELAT_1:18
.= X by A5,XBOOLE_1:12;
C \/ C~ = (R \/ T) \/ (R~ \/ T~) by RELAT_1:23
.= [:X,X:] by A1,k2,XBOOLE_1:5; then
ss: CharRel P is strongly_connected by RELAT_2:30,a4;
C is_reflexive_in X by a4,ss,RELAT_2:def 9; then
A3: dom C = X by ORDERS_1:13;
y1: C /\ C~ = (R \/ T) /\ (R~ \/ T~) by RELAT_1:23
.= T \/ (R /\ R~) by XBOOLE_1:24,Y5
.= id X by Y6,A1;
Y9: (R*R) \/ (R \/ id X) c= R \/ (R \/ id X) by XBOOLE_1:9,A1,RELAT_2:27;
y7: R \/ (R \/ id X) c= R \/ id X \/ (R \/ id X) by XBOOLE_1:7,XBOOLE_1:9;
B9: dom R c= X;
B10: rng R c= X;
B11: dom (id X) c= X;
B13: (R \/ id X) * id X = (R * id X) \/ (id X * id X) by SYSREL:6;
W2: id X * R = R by RELAT_1:51,B9;
W3: R * id X = R by RELAT_1:53,B10;
W4: id X * id X = id X by RELAT_1:51,B11;
C * C = ((R \/ id X) * R) \/ ((R \/ id X) * id X) by RELAT_1:32,A1
.= ((R * R) \/ (id X * R)) \/ ((R * id X) \/ (id X * id X))
by SYSREL:6,B13
.= (R * R) \/ (R \/ (R \/ id X)) by XBOOLE_1:4,W2,W3,W4
.= (R * R) \/ (R \/ id X) by XBOOLE_1:6;
hence thesis by y1,ss,A3,RELAT_2:27,XBOOLE_1:1,
Y9,A1,y7,PARTFUN1:def 2,RELAT_2:22;
end;
CharRel P is connected Order of the carrier of P implies
P is total
proof
assume
B1: CharRel P is connected Order of the carrier of P;
set R = the PrefRel of P,
T = the ToleranceRel of P,
I = the InternalRel of P,
X = the carrier of P;
S1: field (R \/ T) = X by B1,ORDERS_1:12;
B5: dom (R \/ T) = X by PARTFUN1:def 2,B1;
T is symmetric by PrefDef; then
S0: T = T~ by RELAT_2:13;
B7: R is asymmetric by PrefDef; then
B6: R /\ R~ = {} by Lemma17,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
B9: dom R c= X;
B10: rng R c= X;
S6: id X misses R by Lemma21,B7;
X1: T = id X
proof
W1: id X c= T by XBOOLE_1:73,S6,RELAT_2:1,S1,B1;
S5: (R \/ T) /\ (R \/ T)~ c= id X by B5,RELAT_2:22,B1;
(R \/ T) /\ (R \/ T)~ = (R \/ T) /\ (R~ \/ T~) by RELAT_1:23
.= T \/ (R /\ R~) by XBOOLE_1:24,S0
.= T by B6;
hence thesis by W1,XBOOLE_0:def 10,S5;
end;
x2: R * R c= R
proof
B11: dom (id X) c= X;
W2: id X * R = R by RELAT_1:51,B9;
W3: R * id X = R by RELAT_1:53,B10;
W4: id X * id X = id X by RELAT_1:51,B11;
B14: (R \/ id X) * R = (R * R) \/ (id X * R) by SYSREL:6;
B13: (R \/ id X) * id X = (R * id X) \/ (id X * id X) by SYSREL:6;
(R \/ id X) * (R \/ id X) = ((R \/ id X) * R) \/ ((R \/ id X) * id X)
by RELAT_1:32
.= (R * R) \/ (R \/ (R \/ id X)) by XBOOLE_1:4,W2,W3,W4,B14,B13
.= (R * R) \/ (R \/ id X) by XBOOLE_1:6; then
R * R c= R \/ id X by RELAT_2:27,B1,X1,XBOOLE_1:11;
hence thesis by Lemma22,B7,XBOOLE_1:73;
end;
I = {}
proof
set Z = (R \/ R~) \/ T;
R \/ T is_connected_in X & R \/ T is_reflexive_in X
by S1,B1,RELAT_2:def 14,def 9; then
R \/ T is strongly_connected by RELAT_2:def 15,S1,ORDERS_1:7; then
[:X,X:] c= (R \/ T) \/ (R \/ T)~ by RELAT_2:30,S1; then
[:X,X:] c= (R \/ T) \/ (R~ \/ T~) by RELAT_1:23; then
S2: [:X,X:] c= (R \/ R~) \/ T by XBOOLE_1:5,S0;
s3: Z \/ I = nabla X by PrefDef;
s4: R, T, I are_mutually_disjoint by PrefDef;
I is symmetric by PrefDef; then
R~ misses I by s4,Lemma20; then
I misses Z by s4,XBOOLE_1:114;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_1:11,S2,Lemma19,s3;
end;
hence thesis by X1,x2,RELAT_2:27;
end;
hence thesis by Z1;
end;