:: Binary Relations-Based Rough Sets -- An Automated Approach
:: by Adam Grabowski
::
:: Received February 15, 2016
:: Copyright (c) 2016 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies STRUCT_0, ORDERS_2, RELAT_1, TARSKI, ZFMISC_1, CARD_3, RELAT_2,
XBOOLE_0, PARTFUN1, SUBSET_1, FUNCT_1, EQREL_1, XXREAL_0, ROUGHS_1,
ROUGHS_2, FINSET_1, ROUGHS_3, ROUGHS_4, COHSP_1, FUNCT_2, FINSUB_1,
SETWISEO, ALTCAT_2, CLASSES1, NATTRA_1;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, FINSET_1, FINSUB_1,
SETWISEO, CLASSES1, FUNCT_1, RELSET_1, FUNCT_2, DOMAIN_1, STRUCT_0,
ORDERS_2, EQREL_1, ORDERS_3, ROUGHS_1, ROUGHS_2, ALTCAT_2, COHSP_1,
ROUGHS_4;
constructors EQREL_1, DOMAIN_1, RELSET_1, ROUGHS_1, SETWISEO, COHSP_1,
ORDERS_3, YELLOW_3, ROUGHS_2, ROUGHS_4, ALTCAT_2;
registrations XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, STRUCT_0, ORDERS_2, RELSET_1,
ROUGHS_1, ROUGHS_2, FINSET_1, ROUGHS_4, FUNCT_2, SETWISEO, COHSP_1,
WAYBEL_8;
requirements BOOLE, SUBSET;
definitions TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, COHSP_1;
equalities SUBSET_1, STRUCT_0, RELAT_1;
theorems XBOOLE_0, XBOOLE_1, SUBSET_1, TARSKI, ZFMISC_1, RELAT_1, RELAT_2,
FUNCT_2, ORDERS_2, ROUGHS_1, RELSET_1, ROUGHS_2, XTUPLE_0, RELSET_2,
ROUGHS_4, FINSUB_1, YELLOW_0, ALTCAT_2, COHSP_1, FUNCT_1, FINSET_1,
CLASSES1, ORDERS_1, ORDERS_3;
schemes FINSET_1, RELSET_1, SETWISEO;
begin :: Preliminaries
:: The aim of this Mizar article is to provide a formal counterpart
:: for the rest of the paper of William Zhu "Generalized Rough Sets
:: Based on Relations", Information Sciences, 177, 2007, pp. 4997--5011.
:: The first part of our formalization (covering first seven pages)
:: is contained in ROUGHS_2. Now we start from page 5003, sec. 3.4.
:: We formalized almost all numbered items (definitions, propositions,
:: theorems, and corollaries), with the exception of Proposition 7,
:: where we stated our theorem only in terms of singletons.
:: We provided more thorough discussion of the property "positive_alliance"
:: and its connection with seriality and reflexivity (and also transitivity).
:: Examples were not covered as a rule as we aim to provide a more
:: general mechanism of finding appropriate models for approximation
:: spaces in Mizar providing more automatization than it is now.
reserve X,a,b,c,x,y,z,t for set;
reserve R for Relation;
registration let X be non empty set;
cluster bool X -> d.union-closed;
coherence;
end;
scheme :: SETWISEO:sch 2 revised
FinSubIndA1{ X() -> non empty finite set, P[Subset of X()] } :
for B being Subset of X() holds P[B]
provided
A1: P[{}X()] and
A2: for B9 being Subset of X(),
b being Element of X() holds
P[B9] & not b in B9 implies P[B9 \/ {b}]
proof
defpred X[set] means
ex B9 being Subset of X() st B9 = $1 & P[B9];
let B be Subset of X();
A3: for x,A being set st x in B & A c= B & X[A] holds X[A \/ {x}]
proof
let x,A be set such that
A4: x in B and
A5: A c= B and
A6: ex B9 being Subset of X() st B9 = A & P[B9];
reconsider x9 = x as Element of X() by A4;
reconsider A9 = A as Subset of X() by A5,XBOOLE_1:1;
reconsider A99 = A9 \/ {x9} as Subset of X();
take A99;
thus A99 = A \/ {x};
thus P[A99] by A2,A6,ZFMISC_1:40;
end;
A7: B is finite;
A8: X[{}] by A1;
X[B] from FINSET_1:sch 2(A7,A8,A3);
hence thesis;
end;
scheme :: similar to SETWISEO:sch 3
FinSubIndA2 { X() -> non empty finite set, P[Subset of X()] } :
for B being non empty Subset of X() holds P[B]
provided
A1: for x being Element of X() holds P[{x}] and
A2: for B1,B2 being non empty Subset of X() st P[B1] & P[B2] holds
P[B1 \/ B2];
let B be non empty Subset of X();
reconsider BB = B as non empty Element of Fin X() by FINSUB_1:def 5;
defpred PP[Element of Fin X()] means
ex C being Subset of X() st C = $1 & P[C];
B1: for x being Element of X() holds PP[{.x.}]
proof
let x be Element of X();
P[{x}] by A1;
hence thesis;
end;
B2: for B1,B2 being non empty Element of Fin X() st PP[B1] & PP[B2] holds
PP[B1 \/ B2]
proof
let B1,B2 be non empty Element of Fin X();
assume
K1: PP[B1] & PP[B2]; then
reconsider A1 = B1, A2 = B2 as Subset of X();
P[A1 \/ A2] by A2,K1;
hence thesis;
end;
for B being non empty Element of Fin X() holds PP[B]
from SETWISEO:sch 3(B1,B2); then
PP[BB];
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th21:
for f being Function st dom f is subset-closed &
dom f is d.union-closed & f is d.union-distributive holds
for a, y being set st
a in dom f & y in f.a ex b being set st b is finite & b c= a & y in f.b
proof
let f be Function such that
A1: dom f is subset-closed;
assume that
A2: dom f is d.union-closed and
AA: f is d.union-distributive;
reconsider C = dom f as d.union-closed subset-closed set by A1,A2;
let a, y be set;
assume that
A3: a in dom f and
A4: y in f.a;
reconsider A = {b where b is Subset of a: b is finite} as set;
A5: A is c=directed
proof
let Y be finite Subset of A;
take union Y;
now
let x be set;
assume x in Y;
then x in A;
then ex c being Subset of a st x = c & c is finite;
hence x c= a;
end;
then
A6: union Y c= a by ZFMISC_1:76;
now
let b be set;
assume b in Y;
then b in A;
then ex c being Subset of a st b = c & c is finite;
hence b is finite;
end;
then union Y is finite by FINSET_1:7;
hence thesis by A6;
end;
A7: union A = a
proof
thus union A c= a
proof
let x be object;
assume x in union A;
then consider b being set such that
A8: x in b and
A9: b in A by TARSKI:def 4;
ex c being Subset of a st b = c & c is finite by A9;
hence thesis by A8;
end;
let x be object;
assume x in a;
then {x} c= a by ZFMISC_1:31;
then x in {x} & {x} in A by TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by TARSKI:def 4;
end;
A10: A c= C
proof
let x be object;
assume x in A;
then ex b being Subset of a st x = b & b is finite;
hence thesis by A3,CLASSES1:def 1;
end;
f.union A = union (f.:A) by A3,A7,A5,A10,AA,COHSP_1:def 10;
then consider B being set such that
A11: y in B and
A12: B in f.:A by A4,A7,TARSKI:def 4;
consider b being object such that
b in dom f and
A13: b in A and
A14: B = f.b by A12,FUNCT_1:def 6;
reconsider bb = b as set by TARSKI:1;
take bb;
ex c being Subset of a st b = c & c is finite by A13;
hence bb is finite & bb c= a & y in f.bb by A11,A14;
end;
theorem KeyLemma:
for f being Function st
dom f is subset-closed & f is union-distributive &
dom f is d.union-closed holds
for a, y being set st a in dom f &
y in f.a ex x being set st x in a & y in f.{x}
proof
let f be Function;
assume
A1: dom f is subset-closed;
then reconsider C = dom f as subset-closed set;
A2: {} is Subset of dom f by XBOOLE_1:2;
assume that
A3: f is union-distributive and
AB: dom f is d.union-closed;
let a, y be set;
assume that
A4: a in dom f and
A5: y in f.a;
consider b being set such that
b is finite and
A6: b c= a and
A7: y in f.b by A1,A4,A5,Th21,AB,A3;
A9: dom f = C; then
{} in dom f by A4,CLASSES1:def 1,XBOOLE_1:2;
then f.{} = union (f.:{}) by A3,A2,ZFMISC_1:2,COHSP_1:def 9
.= {} by ZFMISC_1:2;
then reconsider b as non empty set by A7;
reconsider A = the set of all {x} where x is Element of b as set;
A10: b in dom f by A4,A6,A9,CLASSES1:def 1;
A11: A c= dom f
proof
let X be object;
reconsider xx=X as set by TARSKI:1;
assume X in A;
then ex x being Element of b st X = {x};
hence thesis by A9,A10,CLASSES1:def 1;
end;
now
let X be set;
assume X in A;
then ex x being Element of b st X = {x};
hence X c= b;
end; then
A12: union A in dom f by A9,A10,CLASSES1:def 1,ZFMISC_1:76;
reconsider A as Subset of dom f by A11;
b c= union A
proof
let x be object;
assume x in b;
then {x} in A;
then {x} c= union A by ZFMISC_1:74;
hence thesis by ZFMISC_1:31;
end;
then
A13: f.b c= f.union A by A3,A10,A12,COHSP_1:def 11;
f.union A = union (f.:A) by A3,A12,COHSP_1:def 9;
then consider Y being set such that
A14: y in Y and
A15: Y in f.:A by A7,A13,TARSKI:def 4;
consider X being object such that
X in dom f and
A16: X in A and
A17: Y = f.X by A15,FUNCT_1:def 6;
reconsider X as set by A16;
consider x being Element of b such that
A18: X = {x} by A16;
reconsider x as set;
take x;
x in b;
hence x in a by A6;
thus y in f.{x} by A14,A17,A18;
end;
begin :: On the Union and the Intersection of Two Relational Structures
::: Should be consulted with PCS_0
definition let R1, R2 be RelStr;
func Union (R1,R2) -> strict RelStr means :DefUnion:
the carrier of it = (the carrier of R1) \/ the carrier of R2 &
the InternalRel of it =
(the InternalRel of R1) \/ the InternalRel of R2;
existence
proof
set X = (the carrier of R1) \/ the carrier of R2;
set I = (the InternalRel of R1) \/ the InternalRel of R2;
A2: I c= [:the carrier of R1,the carrier of R1:] \/
[:the carrier of R2,the carrier of R2:] by XBOOLE_1:13;
set X1 = the carrier of R1;
set X2 = the carrier of R2;
X1 c= X & X2 c= X by XBOOLE_1:7; then
[:X1,X1:] c= [:X,X:] & [:X2,X2:] c= [:X,X:] by ZFMISC_1:96; then
[:X1,X1:] \/ [:X2,X2:] c= [:X,X:] by XBOOLE_1:8; then
reconsider I as Relation of X by A2,XBOOLE_1:1;
set RR = RelStr (# X, I #);
the carrier of RR = X & the InternalRel of RR = I;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness;
commutativity;
func Meet (R1,R2) -> strict RelStr means :DefMeet:
the carrier of it = (the carrier of R1) /\ the carrier of R2 &
the InternalRel of it =
(the InternalRel of R1) /\ the InternalRel of R2;
existence
proof
set X = (the carrier of R1) /\ the carrier of R2;
set I = (the InternalRel of R1) /\ the InternalRel of R2;
A2: I c= [:the carrier of R1,the carrier of R1:] /\
[:the carrier of R2,the carrier of R2:] by XBOOLE_1:27;
reconsider I as Relation of X by A2,ZFMISC_1:100;
set RR = RelStr (# X, I #);
the carrier of RR = X & the InternalRel of RR = I;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness;
commutativity;
end;
registration let R1 be RelStr, R2 be non empty RelStr;
cluster Union (R1,R2) -> non empty;
coherence
proof
the carrier of Union (R1,R2) = (the carrier of R1) \/ the carrier of R2
by DefUnion;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
begin :: Ordinary Properties of Maps
registration let A be set;
cluster /\-preserving \/-preserving for Function of bool A, bool A;
existence
proof
id bool A in Funcs(bool A, bool A) by FUNCT_2:126; then
reconsider f = id bool A as Function of bool A, bool A by FUNCT_2:66;
take f;
thus thesis by ROUGHS_4:def 14,def 12;
end;
end;
registration let A be set;
let f be /\-preserving Function of bool A, bool A;
cluster Flip f -> \/-preserving;
coherence
proof
for a,b being Subset of A holds f.(a /\ b) = f.a /\ f.b
by ROUGHS_4:def 10; then
for a,b being Subset of A holds (Flip f).(a \/ b) =
(Flip f).a \/ (Flip f).b by ROUGHS_2:22;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_4:def 9;
end;
end;
registration let A be set;
let f be \/-preserving Function of bool A, bool A;
cluster Flip f -> /\-preserving;
coherence
proof
for a,b being Subset of A holds f.(a \/ b) = f.a \/ f.b
by ROUGHS_4:def 9; then
for a,b being Subset of A holds (Flip f).(a /\ b) =
(Flip f).a /\ (Flip f).b by ROUGHS_2:21;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_4:def 10;
end;
end;
theorem FlipCC:
for A being non empty set
for f, g being Function of bool A, bool A st
f cc= g holds
Flip g cc= Flip f
proof
let A be non empty set;
let f, g be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume
A1: f cc= g;
set ff = Flip f, gg = Flip g;
a2: dom ff = bool A by FUNCT_2:def 1;
for x being set st x in dom gg holds gg.x c= ff.x
proof
let x be set;
assume x in dom gg; then
reconsider xx = x as Subset of A;
B1: (Flip g).xx = (g.xx`)` by ROUGHS_2:def 14;
B2: (Flip f).xx = (f.xx`)` by ROUGHS_2:def 14;
dom f = bool A by FUNCT_2:def 1; then
f.xx` c= g.xx` by A1,ALTCAT_2:def 1;
hence thesis by B1,B2,SUBSET_1:12;
end;
hence thesis by a2,ALTCAT_2:def 1;
end;
registration
cluster non empty mediate transitive for RelStr;
existence
proof
set R = the non empty reflexive transitive RelStr;
take R;
thus thesis;
end;
end;
registration
let R be total mediate RelStr;
cluster the InternalRel of R -> mediate;
coherence
proof
field the InternalRel of R = the carrier of R by ORDERS_1:12;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_2:def 6,def 7;
end;
end;
theorem Th13:
for L1,L2 be RelStr st the RelStr of L1 = the RelStr of L2 &
L1 is mediate holds L2 is mediate
proof
let L1, L2 be RelStr;
assume
A1: the RelStr of L1 = the RelStr of L2;
assume L1 is mediate; then
the InternalRel of L1 is_mediate_in the carrier of L1 by ROUGHS_2:def 7;
hence thesis by A1,ROUGHS_2:def 7;
end;
theorem NatDay:
for L1,L2 be RelStr st the RelStr of L1 = the RelStr of L2 &
L1 is serial holds L2 is serial
proof
let L1, L2 be RelStr;
assume
A1: the RelStr of L1 = the RelStr of L2;
assume L1 is serial; then
the InternalRel of L1 is_serial_in the carrier of L1 by ROUGHS_2:def 3;
hence thesis by A1,ROUGHS_2:def 3;
end;
theorem R224: :: dual version of ROUGHS_2:24
for A being non empty set,
L, U being Function of bool A, bool A st
U = Flip L &
for X being Subset of A holds L.X c= L.(L.X) holds
for X being Subset of A holds U.(U.X) c= U.X
proof
let A be non empty set,
L, U be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume that
A1: U = Flip L and
A2: for X being Subset of A holds L.X c= L.(L.X);
let X be Subset of A;
A3: U.X = (L.X`)` by ROUGHS_2:def 14,A1;
U.(U.X) = U.(L.X`)` by ROUGHS_2:def 14,A1
.= (L.(L.X`)``)` by ROUGHS_2:def 14,A1
.= (L.(L.X`))`;
hence thesis by A3,A2,SUBSET_1:12;
end;
theorem Th5A:
for R being non empty RelStr,
a, b being Element of R st
[a,b] in the InternalRel of R holds a in UAp {b}
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
let a, b be Element of R;
B1: b in {b} by TARSKI:def 1;
assume [a,b] in the InternalRel of R; then
B3: b in Class (the InternalRel of R,a) by RELAT_1:169;
reconsider B = {b} as Subset of R;
B2: Class (the InternalRel of R,a) meets B by B3,B1,XBOOLE_0:3;
UAp B = { x where x is Element of R : Class (the
InternalRel of R, x) meets B } by ROUGHS_1:def 5;
hence thesis by B2;
end;
UApCon: ::: generalized from ROUGHS_1, should be moved there
for R being non empty RelStr,
X, Y being Subset of R holds
UAp (X /\ Y) c= UAp X /\ UAp Y
proof
let R be non empty RelStr,
X, Y be Subset of R;
let x be object;
assume
A1: x in UAp (X /\ Y); then
reconsider xx = x as Element of R;
Class (the InternalRel of R, x) meets Y by A1,ROUGHS_2:7,XBOOLE_1:74;
then xx in { x where x is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R, x) meets Y }; then
A2: x in UAp Y by ROUGHS_1:def 5;
Class (the InternalRel of R, x) meets X by A1,ROUGHS_2:7,XBOOLE_1:74;
then xx in { x where x is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R, x) meets X }; then
x in UAp X by ROUGHS_1:def 5;
hence thesis by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
theorem UApAdditive:
for R being non empty RelStr,
A, B being Subset of R holds
(UAp R).(A \/ B) = (UAp R).A \/ (UAp R).B
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
let X, Y be Subset of R;
set H = UAp R;
H.(X \/ Y) = UAp (X \/ Y) by ROUGHS_2:def 11
.= UAp X \/ UAp Y by ROUGHS_2:13
.= H.X \/ UAp Y by ROUGHS_2:def 11
.= H.X \/ H.Y by ROUGHS_2:def 11;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for R being non empty RelStr,
A, B being Subset of R holds
(LAp R).(A /\ B) = (LAp R).A /\ (LAp R).B
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
let X, Y be Subset of R;
set L = LAp R;
L.(X /\ Y) = LAp (X /\ Y) by ROUGHS_2:def 10
.= LAp X /\ LAp Y by ROUGHS_2:12
.= L.X /\ LAp Y by ROUGHS_2:def 10
.= L.X /\ L.Y by ROUGHS_2:def 10;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem UApEmpty:
for R being non empty RelStr holds
(UAp R).{} = {}
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
(UAp R).{} = UAp {}R by ROUGHS_2:def 11
.= {};
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Pom1:
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr,
X being Subset of R1,
Y being Subset of R2 st
the RelStr of R1 = the RelStr of R2 & X = Y holds
UAp X = UAp Y
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr,
X be Subset of R1,
Y be Subset of R2;
assume that
A1: the RelStr of R1 = the RelStr of R2 and
A2: X = Y;
UAp X = { x where x is Element of R1 :
Class (the InternalRel of R1, x) meets X } by ROUGHS_1:def 5
.= UAp Y by A1,A2,ROUGHS_1:def 5;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Pom2:
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr,
X being Subset of R1,
Y being Subset of R2 st
the RelStr of R1 = the RelStr of R2 & X = Y holds
LAp X = LAp Y
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr,
X be Subset of R1,
Y be Subset of R2;
assume that
A1: the RelStr of R1 = the RelStr of R2 and
A2: X = Y;
LAp X = { x where x is Element of R1 :
Class (the InternalRel of R1, x) c= X } by ROUGHS_1:def 4
.= LAp Y by A1,A2,ROUGHS_1:def 4;
hence thesis;
end;
begin :: On the Relational Structure Generated by Rough Approximation
definition let R be non empty RelStr,
H be Function of bool the carrier of R, bool the carrier of R;
func GeneratedRelation (R,H) -> Relation of the carrier of R means :GRDef:
for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in it iff x in H.{y};
existence
proof
defpred P[Element of R, Element of R] means
$1 in H.{$2};
consider RR being Relation of the carrier of R such that
A0: for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in RR iff P[x,y] from RELSET_1:sch 2;
take RR;
thus thesis by A0;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let R1, R2 be Relation of the carrier of R such that
A1: for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in R1 iff x in H.{y} and
A2: for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in R2 iff x in H.{y};
for x, y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in R1 iff [x,y] in R2
proof
let x,y be Element of R;
hereby assume [x,y] in R1; then
x in H.{y} by A1;
hence [x,y] in R2 by A2;
end;
assume [x,y] in R2; then
x in H.{y} by A2;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis by RELSET_1:def 2;
end;
end;
definition let R be non empty RelStr;
let H be Function of bool the carrier of R, bool the carrier of R;
func GeneratedRelStr (H) -> RelStr equals
RelStr (#the carrier of R, GeneratedRelation (R,H)#);
coherence;
end;
registration let R be non empty RelStr;
let H be Function of bool the carrier of R, bool the carrier of R;
cluster GeneratedRelStr (H) -> non empty;
coherence;
end;
theorem KeyTheorem:
for R being finite non empty RelStr,
H being Function of bool the carrier of R, bool the carrier of R st
H.{} = {} & H is \/-preserving holds
UAp GeneratedRelStr H = H
proof
let R be finite non empty RelStr,
H be Function of bool the carrier of R, bool the carrier of R;
assume
AA: H.{} = {} & H is \/-preserving;
K1: dom H = bool the carrier of R by FUNCT_2:def 1;
g2: for A being Subset of dom H st
union A in dom H holds H.union A = union (H.:A)
proof
let A be Subset of dom H;
per cases;
suppose
A = {};
hence thesis by AA,ZFMISC_1:2;
end;
suppose
KJ: A <> {};
assume union A in dom H;
reconsider AA = A as Element of Fin bool the carrier of R
by K1,FINSUB_1:def 5;
reconsider HH = H as Function of bool the carrier of R,
Fin the carrier of R by FINSUB_1:14;
defpred P[Subset of bool the carrier of R] means
H.union $1 = union (H.:$1);
V1: for x being Element of bool the carrier of R holds P[{x}]
proof
let x be Element of bool the carrier of R;
H.union {x} = H.x by ZFMISC_1:25
.= union {H.x} by ZFMISC_1:25
.= union Im (H,x) by K1,FUNCT_1:59
.= union (H.:{x});
hence thesis;
end;
V2: for B1,B2 being non empty Subset of bool the carrier of R st
P[B1] & P[B2] holds
P[B1 \/ B2]
proof
let B1,B2 be non empty Subset of bool the carrier of R;
assume
BB: P[B1] & P[B2];
set B12 = B1 \/ B2;
zx: for g being set st g in B1 holds g c= the carrier of R;
for g being set st g in B2 holds g c= the carrier of R; then
reconsider U1 = union B1, U2 = union B2 as Subset of R
by zx,ZFMISC_1:76;
H.union B12 = H.(union B1 \/ union B2) by ZFMISC_1:78
.= H.U1 \/ H.U2 by ROUGHS_4:def 9,AA
.= union (H.:B1 \/ H.:B2) by ZFMISC_1:78,BB
.= union (H.:(B1 \/ B2)) by RELAT_1:120;
hence thesis;
end;
SS: for B being non empty Subset of bool the carrier of R holds
P[B] from FinSubIndA2(V1,V2);
reconsider AA = A as non empty Subset of bool the carrier of R
by KJ,FUNCT_2:def 1;
H.union AA = union (H.:AA) by SS;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
set HH = UAp GeneratedRelStr H;
for X being Subset of R holds HH.X = H.X
proof
let X be Subset of R;
PS: HH.X c= H.X
proof
let x be object;
assume
a1: x in HH.X;
reconsider XX = X as Subset of GeneratedRelStr H;
a2: x in UAp XX by ROUGHS_2:def 11,a1;
reconsider xx = x as Element of R by a2;
consider y being object such that
a4: y in Class (GeneratedRelation (R,H), x) & y in X
by a2,XBOOLE_0:3,ROUGHS_2:7;
reconsider y as Element of R by a4;
reconsider Y = {y} as Subset of R;
[xx,y] in GeneratedRelation (R,H) by RELSET_2:9,a4; then
a5: xx in H.{y} by GRDef;
H.Y c= H.X by AA,ROUGHS_4:def 8,a4,ZFMISC_1:31;
hence thesis by a5;
end;
H.X c= HH.X
proof
let x be object;
assume
a1: x in H.X;
reconsider XX = X as Subset of GeneratedRelStr H;
consider y being set such that
b1: y in X & x in H.{y} by a1,KeyLemma,g2,K1,COHSP_1:def 9;
reconsider xx = x as Element of R by a1;
reconsider Y = {y} as Subset of R by b1,ZFMISC_1:31;
reconsider xx = x, yy = y as Element of R by a1,b1;
[xx,yy] in GeneratedRelation (R,H) by GRDef,b1; then
yy in Class (GeneratedRelation (R,H), xx) & y in XX
by b1,RELSET_2:9; then
Class (the InternalRel of GeneratedRelStr H, xx) meets XX
by XBOOLE_0:3; then
xx in { x where x is Element of GeneratedRelStr H : Class (the
InternalRel of GeneratedRelStr H, x) meets XX }; then
xx in UAp XX by ROUGHS_1:def 5;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_2:def 11;
end;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 10,PS;
end;
hence thesis by FUNCT_2:63;
end;
begin :: Construction Revisited: Yao's Theorem 3
theorem YaoTh3: :: Yao Theorem 3
for A being finite non empty set,
L, H being Function of bool A, bool A
st L = Flip H holds
:: (L.A = A &
:: (for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y) &
(H.{} = {} &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds H.(X \/ Y) = H.X \/ H.Y))
iff
ex R being non empty finite RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & LAp R = L & UAp R = H &
for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in the InternalRel of R iff x in H.{y}
proof
let A be finite non empty set,
L, H be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume
ZA: L = Flip H;
thus H.{} = {} &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds H.(X \/ Y) = H.X \/ H.Y)
implies
ex R being non empty finite RelStr st
the carrier of R = A &
LAp R = L & UAp R = H &
for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in the InternalRel of R iff x in H.{y}
proof
assume
A0: H.{} = {} &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds H.(X \/ Y) = H.X \/ H.Y);
defpred Q[set,set] means
$1 in H.{$2};
consider R being Relation of A such that
WW1: for x, y being Element of A holds
[x,y] in R iff Q[x,y] from RELSET_1:sch 2;
set RR = RelStr (#A,R#);
reconsider RR as finite non empty RelStr;
W1: for X being Subset of RR holds (UAp RR).X = H.X
proof
let X be Subset of RR;
deffunc A() = the carrier of RR;
defpred P[set] means
for X being Subset of RR st X c= $1 holds (UAp RR).X = H.X;
U1: the carrier of RR is finite;
for X being Subset of RR st X c= {} holds (UAp RR).X = H.X
proof
let X be Subset of RR;
F2: UAp {}RR = {};
assume X c= {}; then
X = {};
hence thesis by ROUGHS_2:def 11,F2,A0;
end; then
U2: P[{}];
U3: for x,B being set st x in A() & B c= A() & P[B] holds P[B \/ {x}]
proof
let x,B be set;
assume
I1: x in A() & B c= A() & P[B];
BE: H.{x} = { y where y is Element of RR :
x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,y) }
proof
thus H.{x} c= { y where y is Element of RR :
x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,y) }
proof
let w be object;
assume
P1: w in H.{x};
{x} c= A by I1,ZFMISC_1:31; then
t1: H.{x} in bool A by FUNCT_2:5;
reconsider xxx = x as Element of A by I1;
reconsider www = w as Element of RR by t1,P1;
P2: [www,xxx] in the InternalRel of RR by WW1,P1;
www in {www} by TARSKI:def 1; then
x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,www) by P2,RELAT_1:def 13;
hence thesis;
end;
let w be object;
assume w in { y where y is Element of RR :
x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,y) }; then
consider ww being Element of RR such that
P3: ww = w & x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,ww);
consider xx being object such that
P4: [xx,x] in the InternalRel of RR & xx in {ww}
by P3,RELAT_1:def 13;
xx = ww by P4,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by WW1,P3,P4;
end;
reconsider xx = {x} as Subset of RR by I1,ZFMISC_1:31;
WX: { y where y is Element of RR :
Class (the InternalRel of RR,y) meets xx } =
{ y where y is Element of RR :
x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,y) }
proof
thus { y where y is Element of RR :
Class (the InternalRel of RR,y) meets xx } c=
{ y where y is Element of RR :
x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,y) }
proof
let w be object;
assume w in { y where y is Element of RR :
Class (the InternalRel of RR,y) meets xx };
then consider ww being Element of RR such that
H1: ww = w & Class (the InternalRel of RR,ww) meets xx;
x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,ww) by H1,ZFMISC_1:50;
hence thesis by H1;
end;
let w be object;
assume w in { y where y is Element of RR :
x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,y) }; then
consider ww being Element of RR such that
H1: ww = w & x in Class (the InternalRel of RR,ww);
Class (the InternalRel of RR,ww) meets xx by H1,ZFMISC_1:48;
hence thesis by H1;
end;
for X being Subset of RR st X c= B \/ {x}
holds (UAp RR).X = H.X
proof
let X be Subset of RR;
assume
WW: X c= B \/ {x};
X \ {x} c= B \/ {x} \ {x} by WW,XBOOLE_1:33; then
W8: X \ {x} c= B \ {x} by XBOOLE_1:40;
per cases;
suppose
XX1: x in X;
reconsider XX = X \ {x} as Subset of RR;
Ji: XX \/ xx = X by XX1,ZFMISC_1:116;
OP: UAp xx = H.xx by BE,WX,ROUGHS_1:def 5;
OR: H.XX = (UAp RR).XX by W8,XBOOLE_1:1,I1
.= UAp XX by ROUGHS_2:def 11;
(UAp RR).X = UAp X by ROUGHS_2:def 11
.= UAp XX \/ UAp xx by ROUGHS_2:13,Ji
.= H.X by A0,Ji,OP,OR;
hence thesis;
end;
suppose
not x in X;
hence thesis by I1,ZFMISC_1:135,WW;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
P[the carrier of RR] from FINSET_1:sch 2(U1,U2,U3);
hence thesis;
end;
T3: UAp RR = H by W1,FUNCT_2:63; then
LAp RR = L by ROUGHS_2:27,ZA;
hence thesis by T3,WW1;
end;
given R being non empty finite RelStr such that
U0: the carrier of R = A & LAp R = L & UAp R = H &
for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in the InternalRel of R iff x in H.{y};
thus thesis by UApAdditive,U0,UApEmpty;
end;
begin :: Transitive Binary Relations
theorem Th95L: :: Proposition 9 (5L")
for R being non empty transitive RelStr, X being Subset of R holds
LAp X c= LAp (LAp X)
proof
let R be non empty transitive RelStr;
let X be Subset of R;
let x be object;
assume x in LAp X; then
x in {u where u is Element of R : Class (the InternalRel of R,u) c= X}
by ROUGHS_1:def 4; then
consider y being Element of R such that
A1: y = x & Class (the InternalRel of R,y) c= X;
Class (the InternalRel of R,y) c= LAp X
proof
let t be object;
assume t in Class (the InternalRel of R,y); then
B0: [y,t] in (the InternalRel of R) by RELAT_1:169; then
b1: t in rng (the InternalRel of R) by XTUPLE_0:def 13;
Class (the InternalRel of R,t) c= X
proof
let s be object;
assume s in Class (the InternalRel of R,t); then
B2: [t,s] in the InternalRel of R by RELAT_1:169; then
s in rng (the InternalRel of R) by XTUPLE_0:def 13; then
[y,s] in the InternalRel of R
by B0,B2,b1,RELAT_2:def 8,ORDERS_2:def 3; then
s in Im (the InternalRel of R, y) by RELAT_1:169;
hence thesis by A1;
end; then
t in {u where u is Element of R : Class (the InternalRel of R,u) c= X}
by b1;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_1:def 4;
end; then
y in {u where u is Element of R : Class (the InternalRel of R,u) c= LAp X};
hence thesis by ROUGHS_1:def 4,A1;
end;
theorem Th95H: :: Proposition 9 (5H")
for R being non empty transitive RelStr,
X being Subset of R holds
UAp (UAp X) c= UAp X
proof
let R be non empty transitive RelStr;
let X be Subset of R;
let x be object;
assume x in UAp (UAp X); then
x in {y where y is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R,y) meets UAp X} by ROUGHS_1:def 5; then
consider y being Element of R such that
A1: y = x & Class (the InternalRel of R,y) meets UAp X;
consider b being object such that
A2: b in Class (the InternalRel of R,y) /\ UAp X
by XBOOLE_0:7,XBOOLE_0:def 7,A1;
b in Class (the InternalRel of R,y) by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
A3: [y,b] in the InternalRel of R by RELAT_1:169;
b in UAp X by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
b in {t where t is Element of R : Class (the InternalRel of R,t) meets X}
by ROUGHS_1:def 5; then
consider c being Element of R such that
A4: c = b & Class (the InternalRel of R,c) meets X;
consider d being object such that
A5: d in Class (the InternalRel of R,c) /\ X by XBOOLE_0:7,A4,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
AA: d in Class (the InternalRel of R,c) & d in X by XBOOLE_0:def 4,A5;
A6: [c,d] in the InternalRel of R & d in X by RELAT_1:169,AA;
[y,d] in the InternalRel of R & d in X
by ORDERS_2:def 3,RELAT_2:def 8,A6,A3,A4; then
d in Im (the InternalRel of R,y) & d in X by RELAT_1:169; then
d in Class (the InternalRel of R,y) /\ X by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
Class (the InternalRel of R,y) meets X by XBOOLE_0:def 7; then
y in {t where t is Element of R : Class (the InternalRel of R,t) meets X};
hence thesis by A1,ROUGHS_1:def 5;
end;
theorem ThProposition9: :: Proposition 9 L
for A being finite non empty set,
L being Function of bool A, bool A st
L.A = A &
(for X being Subset of A holds L.X c= L.(L.X)) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y) holds
ex R being non empty finite transitive RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & L = LAp R
proof
let A be finite non empty set;
let L be Function of bool A,bool A;
assume
A0: L.A = A &
(for X being Subset of A holds L.X c= L.(L.X)) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y);
set H = Flip L;
LL: L = Flip H by ROUGHS_2:23;
C1: H.{} = {} by A0,ROUGHS_2:19;
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds H.(X \/ Y) = H.X \/ H.Y)
by A0,ROUGHS_2:22; then
consider R being non empty finite RelStr such that
A1: the carrier of R = A & LAp R = L & UAp R = H &
for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in the InternalRel of R iff x in H.{y} by YaoTh3,LL,C1;
for x, y, z being object
st x in the carrier of R & y in the carrier of R &
z in the carrier of R & [x,y] in the InternalRel of R &
[y,z] in the InternalRel of R holds [x,z] in the InternalRel of R
proof
let x,y,z be object;
assume
B1: x in the carrier of R & y in the carrier of R &
z in the carrier of R & [x,y] in the InternalRel of R &
[y,z] in the InternalRel of R;
reconsider z as Element of R by B1;
reconsider xx = x as Element of R by B1;
reconsider w = x, yw = y as Element of R by B1;
reconsider XX = {xx} as Subset of R;
zz: L is /\-preserving by A0,ROUGHS_4:def 10;
reconsider xx = {x}, yy = {y} as Subset of A by ZFMISC_1:31,A1,B1;
yy in bool A; then
reconsider Hy = H.{y} as Subset of A by FUNCT_2:5;
ZX: {y} c= H.{z} by A1,ZFMISC_1:31,B1;
reconsider Hz = H.{z} as Subset of A by A1,FUNCT_2:5;
reconsider az = {z} as Subset of A by A1;
G1: H.yy c= H.Hz by ROUGHS_4:def 8,zz,ZX;
H.(H.az) c= H.az by R224,A0; then
BL: H.{y} c= H.{z} by G1,XBOOLE_1:1;
w in H.{yw} by B1,A1;
hence thesis by A1,BL;
end;
then R is transitive by ORDERS_2:def 3,RELAT_2:def 8;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem ThProposition9U: :: Proposition 9 H
for A being non empty finite set,
U being Function of bool A, bool A st
U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds U.(U.X) c= U.X) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y) holds
ex R being non empty finite transitive RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R
proof
let A be non empty finite set;
let U be Function of bool A,bool A;
assume
A0: U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds U.(U.X) c= U.X) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y);
set L = Flip U;
a1: L.A = A by ROUGHS_2:18,A0;
a2: for X being Subset of A holds L.X c= L.(L.X) by ROUGHS_2:24,A0;
for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y
by A0,ROUGHS_2:21; then
consider R being non empty finite transitive RelStr such that
W1: the carrier of R = A & L = LAp R by a1,a2,ThProposition9;
U = Flip L by ROUGHS_2:23; then
U = UAp R by W1,ROUGHS_2:28;
hence thesis by W1;
end;
begin :: Mediate and Transitive Binary Relations
theorem :: Theorem 1 (5L)
for R being non empty mediate transitive RelStr,
X being Subset of R holds
LAp X = LAp (LAp X)
proof
let R be non empty mediate transitive RelStr;
let X be Subset of R;
A0: LAp X c= LAp (LAp X) by Th95L;
LAp (LAp X) c= LAp X by ROUGHS_2:40;
hence thesis by A0,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 1 (5H)
for R being non empty mediate transitive RelStr,
X being Subset of R holds
UAp X = UAp (UAp X)
proof
let R be non empty mediate transitive RelStr;
let X be Subset of R;
A0: UAp X c= UAp (UAp X) by ROUGHS_2:39;
UAp (UAp X) c= UAp X by Th95H;
hence thesis by A0,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
Prop17A:
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
UAp R1 cc= UAp R2 holds
the InternalRel of R1 c= the InternalRel of R2
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr;
assume
T0: the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2;
assume
XX: UAp R1 cc= UAp R2;
set U1 = UAp R1;
set U2 = UAp R2;
set A = the carrier of R1;
for x,y being object st
[x,y] in the InternalRel of R1 holds [x,y] in the InternalRel of R2
proof
let x,y be object;
assume
B0: [x,y] in the InternalRel of R1; then
b0: x in the carrier of R1 & y in the carrier of R1 by ZFMISC_1:87;
reconsider xx = x, yy = y as Element of R1 by B0,ZFMISC_1:87;
b1: dom UAp R1 = bool the carrier of R1 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
{y} c= the carrier of R1 by ZFMISC_1:31,b0; then
B1: (UAp R1).{y} c= (UAp R2).{y} by XX,ALTCAT_2:def 1,b1;
reconsider yyy = {yy} as Subset of R2 by T0;
reconsider yy1 = {yy} as Subset of R1;
xx in UAp yy1 by Th5A,B0; then
xx in (UAp R1).{yy} by ROUGHS_2:def 11; then
x in (UAp R2).{y} by B1; then
xx in UAp yyy by ROUGHS_2:def 11;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_2:5,T0;
end;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:def 3;
end;
Corr3A:
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
UAp R1 = UAp R2 holds
the InternalRel of R1 = the InternalRel of R2
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr;
assume
A1: the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 & UAp R1 = UAp R2;
A2: the InternalRel of R1 c= the InternalRel of R2 by A1,Prop17A;
the InternalRel of R2 c= the InternalRel of R1 by A1,Prop17A;
hence thesis by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 1 L
for A being non empty finite set,
L being Function of bool A, bool A st
L.A = A &
(for X being Subset of A holds L.X = L.(L.X)) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y) holds
ex R being non empty mediate finite transitive RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & L = LAp R
proof
let A be non empty finite set;
let L be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume
A0: L.A = A &
(for X being Subset of A holds L.X = L.(L.X)) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y); then
for X being Subset of A holds L.X c= L.(L.X); then
consider R being non empty finite transitive RelStr such that
A1: the carrier of R = A & L = LAp R by ThProposition9,A0;
for X being Subset of A holds L.(L.X) c= L.X by A0; then
consider R2 being non empty mediate finite RelStr such that
A2: the carrier of R2 = A & L = LAp R2 by ROUGHS_2:42,A0;
reconsider LL = L as Function of bool the carrier of R2,
bool the carrier of R2 by A2;
set H = Flip LL;
F1: H.{} = {} by ROUGHS_2:19,A0,A2;
f2: for S, T being Subset of the carrier of R2
holds H.(S \/ T) = H.S \/ H.T by ROUGHS_2:22,A2,A0;
set Rx = GeneratedRelStr H;
S2: UAp R2 = H by ROUGHS_2:28,A2;
S3: UAp Rx = H by KeyTheorem,F1,f2,ROUGHS_4:def 9; then
S5: the InternalRel of Rx = the InternalRel of R2 by S2,Corr3A;
H = UAp R by A1,ROUGHS_2:28,A2; then
the InternalRel of Rx = the InternalRel of R by Corr3A,S3,A1,A2; then
reconsider RRR = the RelStr of Rx as
non empty finite mediate transitive RelStr by S5,Th13,A2,A1;
take RRR;
Flip UAp RRR = LAp RRR by ROUGHS_2:27;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_2:27,A2,S3,S2;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 1 H
for A being non empty finite set,
U being Function of bool A, bool A st
U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds U.(U.X) = U.X) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y) holds
ex R being non empty mediate finite transitive RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R
proof
let A be non empty finite set;
let U be Function of bool A,bool A;
assume
a0: U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds U.(U.X) = U.X) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y); then
for X being Subset of A holds U.(U.X) c= U.X; then
consider R being non empty finite transitive RelStr such that
a1: the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R by ThProposition9U,a0;
for x,y being object
st x in the carrier of R & y in the carrier of R holds
([x,y] in the InternalRel of R implies
ex z being object
st (z in the carrier of R & [x,z] in the InternalRel of R &
[z,y] in the InternalRel of R))
proof
let x,y be object;
assume
A0: x in the carrier of R & y in the carrier of R; then
reconsider Y = {y} as Subset of R by ZFMISC_1:31;
assume
A1: [x,y] in the InternalRel of R;
reconsider x as Element of R by A0;
y in Class (the InternalRel of R,x) & y in {y}
by RELAT_1:169,A1,TARSKI:def 1; then
Class (the InternalRel of R,x) /\ {y} <> {} by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
Class (the InternalRel of R,x) meets {y} by XBOOLE_0:def 7; then
x in {t where t is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R,t) meets {y}}; then
B1: x in UAp Y by ROUGHS_1:def 5;
x in UAp (UAp Y)
proof
x in U.Y by a1,ROUGHS_2:def 11,B1; then
x in U.(U.Y) by a1,a0; then
x in U. (UAp Y) by ROUGHS_2:def 11,a1;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_2:def 11,a1;
end; then
x in {t where t is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R,t) meets UAp Y} by ROUGHS_1:def 5; then
consider t being Element of R such that
B4: t = x & Class (the InternalRel of R,t) meets UAp Y;
consider z being object such that
B5: z in Class (the InternalRel of R,t) /\ UAp Y
by XBOOLE_0:7,B4,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
reconsider Z = {z} as Subset of R by ZFMISC_1:31,B5;
z in {z} & z in Class (the InternalRel of R,t) & z in UAp Y
by B5,XBOOLE_0:def 4,TARSKI:def 1; then
z in {z} /\ Class (the InternalRel of R,t) & z in UAp Y
by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
Class (the InternalRel of R,t) meets {z} &
[z,y] in the InternalRel of R by XBOOLE_0:def 7,ROUGHS_2:5,A0; then
t in { w where w is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R,w) meets {z} }
& [z,y] in the InternalRel of R; then
t in UAp Z & [z,y] in the InternalRel of R by ROUGHS_1:def 5; then
[t,z] in the InternalRel of R & [z,y] in the InternalRel of R
by ROUGHS_2:5,B5;
hence thesis by B4,B5;
end; then
R is mediate by ROUGHS_2:def 7,def 5;
hence thesis by a1;
end;
begin :: Alliance Binary Relations
:: (7L) L(-L(X)) = -L(X)
:: (7L') L(-L(X)) c= -L(X)
:: (7L") -L(X) c= L(-L(X))
:: (7H) H(-H(X)) = -H(X)
:: (7H') H(-H(X)) c= -H(X)
:: (7H") -H(X) c= H(-H(X))
definition let X be set,
R be Relation of X;
pred R is_positive_alliance_in X means :: Definition 3
for x,y being object st x in X & y in X & not [x,y] in R holds
ex z being object st z in X & [x,z] in R & not [z,y] in R;
pred R is_negative_alliance_in X means :: Definition 4
for x,y being object st x in X & y in X holds
(ex z being object st z in X &
[x,z] in R & not [z,y] in R) implies not [x,y] in R;
end;
definition let X be set,
R be Relation of X;
pred R is_alliance_in X means :: Definition 5
R is_negative_alliance_in X &
R is_positive_alliance_in X;
end;
definition let R be non empty RelStr;
attr R is positive_alliance means :DefPA:
the InternalRel of R is_positive_alliance_in the carrier of R;
attr R is negative_alliance means :DefNA:
the InternalRel of R is_negative_alliance_in the carrier of R;
attr R is alliance means
the InternalRel of R is_alliance_in the carrier of R;
end;
registration
cluster reflexive -> positive_alliance for non empty RelStr;
coherence
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
assume
AA: R is reflexive;
set X = the carrier of R;
set I = the InternalRel of R;
the InternalRel of R is_positive_alliance_in the carrier of R
proof
let x,y be object;
assume
A1: x in X & y in X & not [x,y] in I; then
reconsider x1 = x as Element of R;
[x1,x1] in I by ORDERS_2:def 5,AA,YELLOW_0:def 1;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
cluster discrete -> negative_alliance for non empty RelStr;
coherence
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
assume
AA: R is discrete;
set X = the carrier of R;
set I = the InternalRel of R;
let x,y be object;
assume x in X & y in X; then
reconsider x1 = x as Element of R;
given z being object such that
E1: z in X & [x,z] in I & not [z,y] in I;
reconsider z1 = z as Element of R by E1;
x1 <= z1 by E1,ORDERS_2:def 5;
hence thesis by E1,AA,ORDERS_3:1;
end;
end;
registration
cluster positive_alliance negative_alliance for non empty RelStr;
existence
proof
set R = the discrete reflexive non empty RelStr;
R is positive_alliance;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
registration
cluster alliance -> positive_alliance negative_alliance
for non empty RelStr;
coherence
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
set I = the InternalRel of R;
set X = the carrier of R;
assume R is alliance; then
I is_alliance_in X;
hence thesis;
end;
cluster positive_alliance negative_alliance -> alliance
for non empty RelStr;
coherence
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
set I = the InternalRel of R;
set X = the carrier of R;
assume R is positive_alliance negative_alliance; then
I is_alliance_in X;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
:: But soon we realized a more general proof can be provided
registration
cluster positive_alliance -> serial for non empty RelStr;
coherence
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
assume
AA: R is positive_alliance;
set X = the carrier of R;
set I = the InternalRel of R;
b2: I is_positive_alliance_in X by AA;
for x being object st x in X holds
ex y being object st y in X & [x,y] in I
proof
let x be object;
assume
B0: x in X;
ex y being object st y in X & [x,y] in I
proof
per cases;
suppose [x,x] in I;
hence thesis by B0;
end;
suppose not [x,x] in I; then
consider z being object such that
B3: z in X & [x,z] in I & not [z,x] in I by B0,b2;
thus thesis by B3;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_2:def 3,def 1;
end;
cluster transitive serial -> positive_alliance for non empty RelStr;
coherence
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
assume
AA: R is transitive serial;
set X = the carrier of R;
set I = the InternalRel of R;
for x,y being object st x in X & y in X & not [x,y] in I holds
ex z being object st z in X & [x,z] in I & not [z,y] in I
proof
let x,y be object;
assume
A0: x in X & y in X & not [x,y] in I; then
consider z being object such that
A1: z in X & [x,z] in I by ROUGHS_2:def 1,AA,ROUGHS_2:def 3;
take z;
thus thesis by A0,A1,AA,ORDERS_2:def 3,RELAT_2:def 8;
end; then
I is_positive_alliance_in X;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem NegReg:
for L1,L2 be non empty RelStr st
the RelStr of L1 = the RelStr of L2 &
L1 is negative_alliance holds L2 is negative_alliance;
theorem PosReg:
for L1,L2 be non empty RelStr st
the RelStr of L1 = the RelStr of L2 &
L1 is positive_alliance holds L2 is positive_alliance;
theorem
for L1,L2 be non empty RelStr st
the RelStr of L1 = the RelStr of L2 &
L1 is alliance holds L2 is alliance;
begin :: Preparation for Translation of Proposition 10 (7H')
definition let R be non empty RelStr;
attr R is satisfying(7H') means
for X being Subset of R holds (UAp X)` c= UAp ((UAp X)`);
attr R is satisfying(7L') means
for X being Subset of R holds LAp ((LAp X)`) c= (LAp X)`;
end;
theorem Sat7Sat:
for R being finite non empty RelStr st
R is satisfying(7L') holds R is satisfying(7H')
proof
let R be finite non empty RelStr;
assume
tr: R is satisfying(7L');
for X being Subset of R holds (UAp X)` c= UAp ((UAp X)`)
proof
let X be Subset of R;
H1: UAp X = Uap X by ROUGHS_2:8 .= (LAp X`)` by ROUGHS_2:def 8; then
(LAp X`)`` c= (LAp (UAp X))` by tr,SUBSET_1:12; then
(UAp X)` c= (Lap (UAp X))` by H1,ROUGHS_2:9; then
(UAp X)` c= (UAp (UAp X)`)`` by ROUGHS_2:def 9;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Sat7Serial: :: Unexpected as seriality can be then proven
for R being finite non empty RelStr st
R is satisfying(7H') holds R is serial
proof
let R be finite non empty RelStr;
set U = UAp R;
assume
tr: R is satisfying(7H');
(UAp {}R)` = [#]R; then
Y2: [#]R c= UAp ([#]R) by tr;
FF: U.[#]R = UAp [#]R by ROUGHS_2:def 11
.= the carrier of R by Y2,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
FO: U.{} = UAp {}R by ROUGHS_2:def 11 .= {};
for X, Y being Subset of R holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y
proof
let X,Y be Subset of R;
U.(X \/ Y) = UAp (X \/ Y) by ROUGHS_2:def 11
.= (UAp X) \/ UAp Y by ROUGHS_2:13
.= U.X \/ UAp Y by ROUGHS_2:def 11
.= U.X \/ U.Y by ROUGHS_2:def 11;
hence thesis;
end; then
consider S being non empty finite serial RelStr such that
H1: the carrier of S = the carrier of R & U = UAp S by ROUGHS_2:32,FF,FO;
the RelStr of S = the RelStr of R by Corr3A,H1;
hence thesis by NatDay;
end;
theorem
for R being finite non empty RelStr st
R is satisfying(7L') holds R is serial by Sat7Serial,Sat7Sat;
registration
cluster satisfying(7H') -> serial for finite non empty RelStr;
coherence by Sat7Serial;
end;
theorem Conv:
for R being non empty RelStr st
(for X being Subset of R holds UAp ((UAp X)`) c= (UAp X)`) holds
for X being Subset of R holds (LAp X)` c= LAp ((LAp X)`)
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
assume
TR: (for X being Subset of R holds UAp ((UAp X)`) c= (UAp X)`);
let X be Subset of R;
H1: LAp X = Lap X by ROUGHS_2:9
.= (UAp X`)` by ROUGHS_2:def 9; then
(UAp X`)`` c= (UAp (LAp X))` by TR,SUBSET_1:12; then
(LAp X)` c= (Uap (LAp X))` by H1,ROUGHS_2:8; then
(LAp X)` c= (LAp (LAp X)`)`` by ROUGHS_2:def 8;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Conv2:
for A being non empty set,
L, U being Function of bool A, bool A st
U = Flip L &
(for X being Subset of A holds (L.X)` c= L.((L.X)`)) holds
for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) c= (U.X)`
proof
let A be non empty set;
let L, U be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume that
A1: U = Flip L and
A2: for X being Subset of A holds (L.X)` c= L.((L.X)`);
let X be Subset of A;
A3: U.X = (L.X`)` by ROUGHS_2:def 14,A1;
(L.(U.X)``)` = U.((U.X)`) by ROUGHS_2:def 14,A1;
hence thesis by A2,A3,SUBSET_1:12;
end;
theorem Conv3:
for A being non empty set,
L, U being Function of bool A, bool A st
U = Flip L &
(for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) c= (U.X)`) holds
for X being Subset of A holds (L.X)` c= L.((L.X)`)
proof
let A be non empty set;
let L, U be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume that
A1: U = Flip L and
A2: for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) c= (U.X)`;
let X be Subset of A;
(U.X`)`` c= (U.((U.X`)`))` by A2,SUBSET_1:12; then
(L.X``)` c= (U.((U.X`)`))` by A1,ROUGHS_2:def 14; then
(L.X)` c= (U.((L.X)``))` by A1,ROUGHS_2:def 14; then
(L.X)` c= (L.(L.X)`)`` by A1,ROUGHS_2:def 14;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Conv4:
for A being non empty set,
L, U being Function of bool A, bool A st
U = Flip L &
(for X being Subset of A holds L.((L.X)`) c= (L.X)`) holds
for X being Subset of A holds (U.X)` c= U.((U.X)`)
proof
let A be non empty set;
let L, U be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume that
A1: U = Flip L and
A2: for X being Subset of A holds L.((L.X)`) c= (L.X)`;
let X be Subset of A;
(L.X`)`` c= (L.((L.X`)`))` by A2,SUBSET_1:12; then
(U.X``)` c= (L.((L.X`)`))` by A1,ROUGHS_2:def 14; then
(U.X)` c= (L.((U.X)``))` by A1,ROUGHS_2:def 14;
hence thesis by A1,ROUGHS_2:def 14;
end;
::theorem :: Obvious due to the mechanism of clusters
:: for R being non empty RelStr holds
:: UAp ((UAp ({}R))`) c= (UAp ({}R))`;
begin :: Translation Continued
theorem :: Proposition 10 (7H') for singletons
for R being finite positive_alliance non empty RelStr,
x being Element of R holds
((UAp R).{x})` c= (UAp R).(((UAp R).{x})`)
proof
let R be finite positive_alliance non empty RelStr,
x be Element of R;
set H = UAp R;
set L = Flip H;
w1: H.{} = {} by UApEmpty;
w5: for X,Y being Subset of R holds H.(X \/ Y) = H.X \/ H.Y
by UApAdditive;
set RR = GeneratedRelStr H;
w3: UAp R = UAp GeneratedRelStr H by KeyTheorem,w1,w5,ROUGHS_4:def 9;
WW: for x,y being Element of RR holds
[x,y] in the InternalRel of RR iff x in H.{y} by GRDef;
WZ: the InternalRel of RR = the InternalRel of R by Corr3A,w3;
W1: the InternalRel of R is_positive_alliance_in the carrier of R
by DefPA;
let y be object;
assume
w2: y in (H.{x})`; then
w1: not y in H.{x} by XBOOLE_0:def 5;
reconsider xx = x, yy = y as Element of RR by w2;
not [yy,xx] in the InternalRel of RR by w1,GRDef; then
consider z being object such that
W2: z in the carrier of R & [y,z] in the InternalRel of R and
W3: not [z,x] in the InternalRel of RR by W1,WZ;
reconsider zz = z as Element of RR by W2;
W5: yy in H.{zz} by W2,GRDef,WZ;
j1: {z} c= the carrier of R by ZFMISC_1:31,W2;
w6: z in (H.{x})` by W3,WW,SUBSET_1:29,W2;
for X, Y being Subset of R holds
H.(X \/ Y) = H.X \/ H.Y by UApAdditive; then
H is \/-preserving by ROUGHS_4:def 9; then
H.{z} c= H.((H.{x})`) by w6,j1,ROUGHS_4:def 8,ZFMISC_1:31;
hence thesis by W5;
end;
::theorem :: Proposition 10 (7H') general case - FAILED
:: for R being finite positive_alliance non empty RelStr,
:: X being Subset of R holds
:: ((UAp R).X)` c= (UAp R).(((UAp R).X)`);
theorem Prop11: :: Proposition 11
for A being non empty finite set,
U being Function of bool A, bool A st
U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds (U.X)` c= U.((U.X)`)) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y) holds
ex R being positive_alliance finite non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R
proof
let A be non empty finite set;
let U be Function of bool A,bool A;
assume
a0: U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds (U.X)` c= U.((U.X)`)) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y); then
consider R being non empty finite RelStr such that
a1: the carrier of R = A & LAp R = Flip U & UAp R = U &
for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in the InternalRel of R iff x in U.{y} by YaoTh3;
set X = the carrier of R;
set I = the InternalRel of R;
for x,y being object st x in X & y in X & not [x,y] in I holds
ex z being object st z in X & [x,z] in I & not [z,y] in I
proof
let x,y be object;
assume
W1: x in X & y in X & not [x,y] in I; then
reconsider xx = x, yy = y as Element of R;
a3: ((UAp R).{yy})` c= U.(((UAp R).{yy})`) by a0,a1;
not xx in (UAp R).{yy} by W1,a1; then
xx in ((UAp R).{yy})` by XBOOLE_0:def 5; then
xx in (UAp R).(((UAp R).{yy})`) by a3,a1; then
xx in UAp (((UAp R).{yy})`) by ROUGHS_2:def 11; then
consider z being object such that
J1: z in Class (the InternalRel of R, xx) & z in (((UAp R).{yy})`)
by XBOOLE_0:3,ROUGHS_2:7;
reconsider zz = z as Element of R by J1;
J2: [xx,zz] in I by J1,RELAT_1:169;
not zz in ((UAp R).{yy}) by J1,XBOOLE_0:def 5; then
not [z,y] in I by a1;
hence thesis by J2;
end; then
the InternalRel of R is_positive_alliance_in X; then
R is positive_alliance;
hence thesis by a1;
end;
theorem :: Proposition 12
for A being non empty finite set,
L being Function of bool A, bool A st
L.A = A &
(for X being Subset of A holds L.((L.X)`) c= (L.X)`) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y) holds
ex R being positive_alliance finite non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & L = LAp R
proof
let A be non empty finite set,
L be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume
A1: L.A = A &
(for X being Subset of A holds L.((L.X)`) c= (L.X)`) &
for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y;
set U = Flip L;
A2: for X being Subset of A holds (U.X)` c= U.((U.X)`) by A1,Conv4;
A4: U.{} = {} by A1,ROUGHS_2:19;
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y)
by ROUGHS_2:22,A1; then
consider R being positive_alliance finite non empty RelStr such that
A3: the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R by Prop11,A2,A4;
L = Flip UAp R by A3,ROUGHS_2:23; then
L = LAp R by ROUGHS_2:27;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
theorem Prop137H: :: Proposition 13 (7H") for singletons - original proofs
for R being finite negative_alliance non empty RelStr,
x being Element of R holds
(UAp R).(((UAp R).{x})`) c= ((UAp R).{x})`
proof
let R be finite negative_alliance non empty RelStr,
x be Element of R;
set H = UAp R;
set L = Flip H;
w1: H.{} = {} by UApEmpty;
w5: for X,Y being Subset of R holds H.(X \/ Y) = H.X \/ H.Y by UApAdditive;
set RR = GeneratedRelStr H;
w3: UAp R = UAp GeneratedRelStr H by KeyTheorem,w1,w5,ROUGHS_4:def 9;
WZ: the InternalRel of RR = the InternalRel of R by Corr3A,w3;
W1: the InternalRel of R is_negative_alliance_in the carrier of R by DefNA;
let y be object;
assume
w2: y in H.((H.{x})`);
reconsider Hx = (H.{x})` as Subset of R;
y in UAp Hx by w2,ROUGHS_2:def 11; then
consider z being object such that
O1: z in Class (the InternalRel of R, y) & z in Hx by XBOOLE_0:3,ROUGHS_2:7;
p1: [y,z] in the InternalRel of R by O1,RELAT_1:169;
reconsider zz = z, yy = y as Element of RR by O1,w2;
reconsider xx = x as Element of RR;
not zz in H.{x} by O1,XBOOLE_0:def 5; then
p2: not [zz,x] in the InternalRel of RR by GRDef;
set W = the carrier of R, I = the InternalRel of R;
not [yy,xx] in I by W1,WZ,p2,p1; then
not yy in H.{xx} by GRDef,WZ;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 5;
end;
theorem Prop13H: :: Proposition 13 (7H")
for R being finite negative_alliance non empty RelStr,
X being Subset of R holds
UAp ((UAp X)`) c= (UAp X)`
proof
let R be finite negative_alliance non empty RelStr;
let X be Subset of R;
defpred P[Subset of R] means
UAp ((UAp $1)`) c= (UAp $1)`;
{}R = {}; then
A1: P[{}the carrier of R];
A2: for B being Subset of R,
b being Element of R holds
P[B] & not b in B implies P[B \/ {b}]
proof
let B be Subset of R,
b be Element of R;
assume
z1: P[B] & not b in B;
reconsider Bb = B \/ {b} as Subset of R;
UAp ((UAp Bb)`) = UAp ((UAp B \/ UAp {b})`) by ROUGHS_2:13
.= UAp ((UAp B)` /\ (UAp {b})`) by XBOOLE_1:53; then
Z2: UAp ((UAp Bb)`) c= UAp ((UAp B)`) /\ UAp ((UAp {b})`) by UApCon;
UAp ((UAp B)`) /\ UAp ((UAp {b})`) c= (UAp B)` /\ UAp ((UAp {b})`)
by z1,XBOOLE_1:26; then
Z3: UAp ((UAp Bb)`) c= (UAp B)` /\ UAp ((UAp {b})`) by Z2,XBOOLE_1:1;
(UAp R).(((UAp R).{b})`) c= ((UAp R).{b})` by Prop137H; then
(UAp R).(((UAp R).{b})`) c= (UAp {b})` by ROUGHS_2:def 11; then
(UAp R).((UAp {b})`) c= (UAp {b})` by ROUGHS_2:def 11; then
UAp ((UAp {b})`) c= (UAp {b})` by ROUGHS_2:def 11; then
z4: (UAp B)` /\ UAp ((UAp {b})`) c= (UAp B)` /\ ((UAp {b})`) by XBOOLE_1:26;
(UAp B)` /\ ((UAp {b})`) = (UAp B \/ UAp {b})` by XBOOLE_1:53
.= (UAp Bb)` by ROUGHS_2:13;
hence thesis by z4,Z3,XBOOLE_1:1;
end;
for B being Subset of R holds P[B] from FinSubIndA1 (A1,A2);
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: Proposition 13 (7L")
for R being finite negative_alliance non empty RelStr,
X being Subset of R holds
(LAp X)` c= LAp ((LAp X)`)
proof
let R be finite negative_alliance non empty RelStr;
for X being Subset of R holds UAp ((UAp X)`) c= (UAp X)` by Prop13H;
hence thesis by Conv;
end;
theorem Prop14: :: Proposition 14
for A being non empty finite set,
U being Function of bool A, bool A st
U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) c= (U.X)`) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y) holds
ex R being negative_alliance finite non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R
proof
let A be non empty finite set;
let U be Function of bool A,bool A;
assume
a0: U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) c= (U.X)`) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y); then
consider R being non empty finite RelStr such that
a1: the carrier of R = A & LAp R = Flip U & UAp R = U &
for x,y being Element of R holds
[x,y] in the InternalRel of R iff x in U.{y} by YaoTh3;
set X = the carrier of R;
set I = the InternalRel of R;
for x,y being object st x in X & y in X holds
(ex z being object st z in X &
[x,z] in I & not [z,y] in I) implies not [x,y] in I
proof
let x,y be object;
assume x in X & y in X; then
reconsider xx = x, yy = y as Element of R;
given z being object such that
A1: z in X & [x,z] in I & not [z,y] in I;
reconsider zz = z as Element of R by A1;
not zz in ((UAp R).{yy}) by A1,a1; then
B0: zz in ((UAp R).{yy})` by XBOOLE_0:def 5;
B1: zz in Class (the InternalRel of R, xx) by RELAT_1:169,A1;
B5: (UAp R).(((UAp R).{yy})`) c= ((UAp R).{yy})` by a0,a1;
Class (the InternalRel of R, xx) meets ((UAp R).{yy})`
by B1,XBOOLE_0:3,B0; then
xx in { x where x is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R, x) meets ((UAp R).{yy})` }; then
xx in UAp (((UAp R).{yy})`) by ROUGHS_1:def 5; then
xx in (UAp R).(((UAp R).{yy})`) by ROUGHS_2:def 11; then
not xx in (UAp R).{yy} by B5,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
hence thesis by a1;
end; then
the InternalRel of R is_negative_alliance_in X; then
R is negative_alliance;
hence thesis by a1;
end;
theorem :: Proposition 15
for A being non empty finite set,
L being Function of bool A, bool A st
L.A = A &
(for X being Subset of A holds (L.X)` c= L.((L.X)`)) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y) holds
ex R being negative_alliance finite non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & L = LAp R
proof
let A be non empty finite set,
L be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume that
A1: L.A = A and
A3: for X being Subset of A holds (L.X)` c= L.((L.X)`) and
A4: (for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y);
set U = Flip L;
C1: U.{} = {} by A1,ROUGHS_2:19;
C2: for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) c= (U.X)` by A3,Conv2;
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y)
by A4,ROUGHS_2:22; then
consider R being negative_alliance finite non empty RelStr such that
A2: the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R by Prop14,C1,C2;
Flip U = LAp R by A2,ROUGHS_2:27; then
L = LAp R by ROUGHS_2:23;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
Prop18:
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
LAp R1 cc= LAp R2 holds
the InternalRel of R2 c= the InternalRel of R1
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr;
assume
A1: the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
LAp R1 cc= LAp R2;
UAp R1 = Flip LAp R1 & UAp R2 = Flip LAp R2 by ROUGHS_2:28;
hence thesis by Prop17A,A1,FlipCC;
end;
The5: :: Theorem 5
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 holds
UAp R1 = UAp R2 iff
the InternalRel of R1 = the InternalRel of R2
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr;
assume
A1: the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2;
hence UAp R1 = UAp R2 implies
the InternalRel of R1 = the InternalRel of R2 by Corr3A;
assume the InternalRel of R1 = the InternalRel of R2; then
A2: the RelStr of R1 = the RelStr of R2 by A1;
for x being Subset of R1 holds (UAp R1).x = (UAp R2).x
proof
let x be Subset of R1;
reconsider xx = x as Subset of R2 by A1;
(UAp R1).x = UAp x by ROUGHS_2:def 11
.= UAp xx by A2,Pom1
.= (UAp R2).x by ROUGHS_2:def 11;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by FUNCT_2:63,A1;
end;
:: Theorem 2 (7H) left without a proof
theorem Th2H: :: Theorem 2 (H)
for A being non empty finite set,
U being Function of bool A, bool A st
U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) = (U.X)`) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y) holds
ex R being alliance finite non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R
proof
let A be non empty finite set,
U be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume
A1: U.{} = {} &
(for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) = (U.X)`) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y); then
for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) c= (U.X)`; then
consider R being negative_alliance finite non empty RelStr such that
A2: the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R by Prop14,A1;
for X being Subset of A holds (U.X)` c= U.((U.X)`) by A1; then
consider S being positive_alliance finite non empty RelStr such that
A3: the carrier of S = A & U = UAp S by Prop11,A1;
A4: the RelStr of S = the RelStr of R by A2,A3,Corr3A;
set RR = the RelStr of R;
A5: RR is positive_alliance by A4,PosReg;
RR is negative_alliance by NegReg; then
reconsider RR as alliance finite non empty RelStr by A5;
UAp RR = UAp R by The5;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 2 (L)
for A being non empty finite set,
L being Function of bool A, bool A st
L.A = A &
(for X being Subset of A holds (L.X)` = L.((L.X)`)) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y) holds
ex R being alliance finite non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R = A & L = LAp R
proof
let A be non empty finite set,
L be Function of bool A, bool A;
assume
A0: L.A = A &
(for X being Subset of A holds (L.X)` = L.((L.X)`)) &
(for X,Y being Subset of A holds L.(X /\ Y) = L.X /\ L.Y);
set U = Flip L;
A2: U.{} = {} by A0,ROUGHS_2:19;
A3: for X being Subset of A holds U.((U.X)`) = (U.X)`
proof
let X be Subset of A;
for X being Subset of A holds (L.X)` c= L.((L.X)`) by A0; then
Z1: U.((U.X)`) c= (U.X)` by Conv2;
Z2: L = Flip U by ROUGHS_2:23;
for X being Subset of A holds L.((L.X)`) c= (L.X)` by A0; then
(U.X)` c= U.((U.X)`) by Conv3,Z2;
hence thesis by Z1,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
for X,Y being Subset of A holds U.(X \/ Y) = U.X \/ U.Y
by A0,ROUGHS_2:22; then
consider R being alliance finite non empty RelStr such that
A1: the carrier of R = A & U = UAp R by A2,A3,Th2H;
Flip U = L by ROUGHS_2:23; then
L = LAp R by A1,ROUGHS_2:27;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
begin :: On the Uniqueness of Binary Relations to Generate Rough Sets
theorem :: Theorem 3 (H)
for R1, R2, R being non empty RelStr,
X being Subset of R,
X1 being Subset of R1,
X2 being Subset of R2 st
R = Union (R1,R2) & X = X1 & X = X2 &
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 holds
UAp X = UAp X1 \/ UAp X2
proof
let R1, R2, R be non empty RelStr,
X be Subset of R,
X1 be Subset of R1,
X2 be Subset of R2;
assume
A1: R = Union (R1,R2) & X = X1 & X = X2 &
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2; then
A0: the InternalRel of R = (the InternalRel of R1) \/ the InternalRel of R2
by DefUnion;
b1: the carrier of R = (the carrier of R1) \/ the carrier of R2
by A1,DefUnion;
C1: UAp X c= UAp X1 \/ UAp X2
proof
let x be object;
assume x in UAp X; then
x in { x where x is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R, x) meets X } by ROUGHS_1:def 5; then
consider xx being Element of R such that
A2: xx = x & Class (the InternalRel of R, xx) meets X;
consider z being object such that
A3: z in Class (the InternalRel of R, xx) & z in X by A2,XBOOLE_0:3;
reconsider zz = z as Element of R by A3;
[xx,zz] in the InternalRel of R by A3,RELAT_1:169; then
B2: [xx,zz] in the InternalRel of R1 or [xx,zz] in the InternalRel of R2
by XBOOLE_0:def 3,A0;
reconsider x1 = xx, z1 = zz as Element of R1 by A1,b1;
reconsider x2 = xx, z2 = zz as Element of R2 by A1,b1;
z1 in Class (the InternalRel of R1,x1) or
z2 in Class (the InternalRel of R2,x2) by B2,RELAT_1:169; then
Class (the InternalRel of R1,x1) meets X or
Class (the InternalRel of R2,x2) meets X by A3,XBOOLE_0:3; then
x1 in { x where x is Element of R1 :
Class (the InternalRel of R1,x) meets X1 } or
x2 in { x where x is Element of R2 :
Class (the InternalRel of R2,x) meets X2 } by A1; then
x1 in UAp X1 or x2 in UAp X2 by ROUGHS_1:def 5;
hence thesis by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
UAp X1 \/ UAp X2 c= UAp X
proof
let x be object;
assume x in UAp X1 \/ UAp X2; then
per cases by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
x in UAp X1; then
x in { x where x is Element of R1 :
Class (the InternalRel of R1,x) meets X1 } by ROUGHS_1:def 5; then
consider xx being Element of R1 such that
C1: xx = x & Class (the InternalRel of R1,xx) meets X1;
reconsider xxx = xx as Element of R by A1,b1;
consider z being object such that
C2: z in Class (the InternalRel of R1,xx) & z in X1 by C1,XBOOLE_0:3;
reconsider zz = z as Element of R1 by C2;
[xx,zz] in the InternalRel of R1 by C2,RELAT_1:169; then
[xx,zz] in (the InternalRel of R1) \/ the InternalRel of R2
by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
zz in Class (the InternalRel of R,xx) by A0,RELAT_1:169; then
Class (the InternalRel of R,xx) meets X1 by C2,XBOOLE_0:3; then
xxx in { x where x is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R,x) meets X } by A1;
hence thesis by C1,ROUGHS_1:def 5;
end;
suppose
x in UAp X2; then
x in { x where x is Element of R2 :
Class (the InternalRel of R2,x) meets X2 } by ROUGHS_1:def 5; then
consider xx being Element of R2 such that
C1: xx = x & Class (the InternalRel of R2,xx) meets X2;
reconsider xxx = xx as Element of R by b1,A1;
consider z being object such that
C2: z in Class (the InternalRel of R2,xx) & z in X2 by C1,XBOOLE_0:3;
reconsider zz = z as Element of R2 by C2;
[xx,zz] in the InternalRel of R2 by C2,RELAT_1:169; then
[xx,zz] in (the InternalRel of R1) \/ the InternalRel of R2
by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
zz in Class (the InternalRel of R,xx) by A0,RELAT_1:169; then
Class (the InternalRel of R,xx) meets X2 by C2,XBOOLE_0:3; then
xxx in { x where x is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R,x) meets X } by A1;
hence thesis by C1,ROUGHS_1:def 5;
end;
end;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 10,C1;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 3 (L)
for R1, R2, R being non empty RelStr,
X being Subset of R,
X1 being Subset of R1,
X2 being Subset of R2 st
R = Union (R1,R2) & X = X1 & X = X2 &
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 holds
LAp X = LAp X1 /\ LAp X2
proof
let R1, R2, R be non empty RelStr,
X be Subset of R,
X1 be Subset of R1,
X2 be Subset of R2;
assume
A1: R = Union (R1,R2) & X = X1 & X = X2 &
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2; then
A0: the InternalRel of R = (the InternalRel of R1) \/ the InternalRel of R2
by DefUnion;
b1: the carrier of R = (the carrier of R1) \/ the carrier of R2
by A1,DefUnion;
D1: LAp X c= LAp X1 /\ LAp X2
proof
let x be object;
assume x in LAp X; then
x in { x where x is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R, x) c= X } by ROUGHS_1:def 4; then
consider xx being Element of R such that
E1: xx = x & Class (the InternalRel of R, xx) c= X;
reconsider x1 = xx as Element of R1 by A1,b1;
Class (the InternalRel of R1, x1) c= X1
proof
let y be object;
assume
F1: y in Class (the InternalRel of R1, x1); then
reconsider y1 = y as Element of R1;
[x1,y1] in the InternalRel of R1 by F1,RELAT_1:169; then
[x1,y1] in (the InternalRel of R1) \/ (the InternalRel of R2)
by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
y1 in Class (the InternalRel of R,xx) by A0,RELAT_1:169;
hence thesis by E1,A1;
end; then
x1 in { x where x is Element of R1 :
Class (the InternalRel of R1, x) c= X1 }; then
T1: x1 in LAp X1 by ROUGHS_1:def 4;
reconsider x2 = xx as Element of R2 by A1,b1;
Class (the InternalRel of R2, x2) c= X2
proof
let y be object;
assume
F1: y in Class (the InternalRel of R2, x2); then
reconsider y2 = y as Element of R2;
[x2,y2] in the InternalRel of R2 by F1,RELAT_1:169; then
[x2,y2] in (the InternalRel of R1) \/ (the InternalRel of R2)
by XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
y2 in Class (the InternalRel of R,xx) by A0,RELAT_1:169;
hence thesis by E1,A1;
end; then
x2 in { x where x is Element of R2 :
Class (the InternalRel of R2, x) c= X2 }; then
x2 in LAp X2 by ROUGHS_1:def 4;
hence thesis by T1,E1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
LAp X1 /\ LAp X2 c= LAp X
proof
let x be object;
assume x in LAp X1 /\ LAp X2; then
H0: x in LAp X1 & x in LAp X2 by XBOOLE_0:def 4; then
x in { x where x is Element of R1 :
Class (the InternalRel of R1, x) c= X1 } by ROUGHS_1:def 4; then
consider x1 being Element of R1 such that
H1: x1 = x & Class (the InternalRel of R1, x1) c= X1;
x in { x where x is Element of R2 :
Class (the InternalRel of R2, x) c= X2 } by H0,ROUGHS_1:def 4; then
consider x2 being Element of R2 such that
H2: x2 = x & Class (the InternalRel of R2, x2) c= X2;
reconsider xx = x as Element of R by A1,b1,H1;
Class (the InternalRel of R, xx) c= X
proof
let y be object;
assume
S1: y in Class (the InternalRel of R, xx); then
reconsider yy = y as Element of R;
[xx,yy] in the InternalRel of R by S1,RELAT_1:169; then
[xx,yy] in (the InternalRel of R1) or
[xx,yy] in the InternalRel of R2 by A0,XBOOLE_0:def 3; then
yy in Class (the InternalRel of R1,xx) or
yy in Class (the InternalRel of R2,xx) by RELAT_1:169;
hence thesis by A1,H2,H1;
end; then
xx in { x where x is Element of R :
Class (the InternalRel of R, x) c= X };
hence thesis by ROUGHS_1:def 4;
end;
hence thesis by D1,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
theorem Prop16H: :: Proposition 16 (H)
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
the InternalRel of R1 c= the InternalRel of R2 holds
UAp R1 cc= UAp R2
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr;
assume
A0: the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
the InternalRel of R1 c= the InternalRel of R2;
a1: dom UAp R2 = bool the carrier of R2 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
for x being set st x in dom UAp R1 holds
(UAp R1).x c= (UAp R2).x
proof
let x be set;
assume
A2: x in dom UAp R1;
then reconsider x1 = x as Subset of R1;
reconsider x2 = x as Subset of R2 by A0,A2;
A4: (UAp R2).x = UAp x2 by ROUGHS_2:def 11;
UAp x1 c= UAp x2
proof
let y be object;
assume y in UAp x1; then
y in { x where x is Element of R1 : Class (the
InternalRel of R1, x) meets x1 } by ROUGHS_1:def 5; then
consider xx being Element of R1 such that
C1: xx = y & Class (the InternalRel of R1, xx) meets x1;
reconsider xxx = xx as Element of R2 by A0;
consider z being object such that
C2: z in Class (the InternalRel of R1, xx) & z in x1 by C1,XBOOLE_0:3;
Class (the InternalRel of R1, xx) c=
Class (the InternalRel of R2, xx) by RELAT_1:124,A0; then
Class (the InternalRel of R2, xx) meets x2 by C2,XBOOLE_0:3; then
xxx in { x where x is Element of R2 :
Class (the InternalRel of R2, x) meets x2 };
hence thesis by C1,ROUGHS_1:def 5;
end;
hence thesis by ROUGHS_2:def 11,A4;
end;
hence thesis by a1,A0,ALTCAT_2:def 1;
end;
theorem Prop16L: :: Proposition 16 (L)
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
the InternalRel of R1 c= the InternalRel of R2 holds
LAp R2 cc= LAp R1
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr;
assume
A0: the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
the InternalRel of R1 c= the InternalRel of R2;
A5: dom LAp R1 = bool the carrier of R1 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
for x being set st x in dom LAp R2 holds
(LAp R2).x c= (LAp R1).x
proof
let x be set;
assume
A2: x in dom LAp R2;
then reconsider x1 = x as Subset of R1 by A0;
A3: (LAp R1).x = LAp x1 by ROUGHS_2:def 10;
reconsider x2 = x as Subset of R2 by A2;
LAp x2 c= LAp x1
proof
let y be object;
assume y in LAp x2; then
y in { x where x is Element of R2 : Class (the
InternalRel of R2, x) c= x2 } by ROUGHS_1:def 4; then
consider xx being Element of R2 such that
C1: xx = y & Class (the InternalRel of R2, xx) c= x2;
reconsider xxx = xx as Element of R2;
Class (the InternalRel of R1, xx) c=
Class (the InternalRel of R2, xx) by RELAT_1:124,A0; then
C2: Class (the InternalRel of R1, xx) c= x1 by C1,XBOOLE_1:1;
reconsider xx1 = xx as Element of R1 by A0;
xx1 in { x where x is Element of R1 :
Class (the InternalRel of R1, x) c= x1 } by C2;
hence thesis by C1,ROUGHS_1:def 4;
end;
hence thesis by A3,ROUGHS_2:def 10;
end;
hence thesis by A5,A0,ALTCAT_2:def 1;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 4 (H)
for R1, R2, R being non empty RelStr,
X being Subset of R,
X1 being Subset of R1,
X2 being Subset of R2 st
R = Meet (R1,R2) & X = X1 & X = X2 &
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 holds
UAp X c= UAp X1 /\ UAp X2
proof
let R1, R2, R be non empty RelStr,
X be Subset of R,
X1 be Subset of R1,
X2 be Subset of R2;
assume
A1: R = Meet (R1,R2) & X = X1 & X = X2 &
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2;
SS: the InternalRel of R =
(the InternalRel of R1) /\ the InternalRel of R2 by A1,DefMeet;
sz: the carrier of R =
(the carrier of R1) /\ the carrier of R2 by A1,DefMeet;
reconsider XX1 = X as Subset of R1 by A1;
reconsider XX2 = X as Subset of R2 by A1;
reconsider XX = X as Subset of R;
zz: dom UAp R = bool the carrier of R by FUNCT_2:def 1;
UAp X c= UAp X1 /\ UAp X2
proof
let x be object;
assume
S2: x in UAp X;
UAp R cc= UAp R1 by Prop16H,SS,sz,A1,XBOOLE_1:17; then
(UAp R).XX c= (UAp R1).XX1 by zz,ALTCAT_2:def 1; then
(UAp R).XX c= UAp XX1 by ROUGHS_2:def 11; then
hh: UAp XX c= UAp XX1 by ROUGHS_2:def 11;
UAp R cc= UAp R2 by Prop16H,A1,SS,XBOOLE_1:17,sz; then
(UAp R).XX c= (UAp R2).XX2 by zz,ALTCAT_2:def 1; then
(UAp R).XX c= UAp XX2 by ROUGHS_2:def 11; then
UAp XX c= UAp XX2 by ROUGHS_2:def 11;
hence thesis by hh,XBOOLE_0:def 4,S2,A1;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 4 (L)
for R1, R2, R being non empty RelStr,
X being Subset of R,
X1 being Subset of R1,
X2 being Subset of R2 st
R = Meet (R1,R2) & X = X1 & X = X2 &
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 holds
LAp X1 \/ LAp X2 c= LAp X
proof
let R1, R2, R be non empty RelStr,
X be Subset of R,
X1 be Subset of R1,
X2 be Subset of R2;
assume
A1: R = Meet (R1,R2) & X = X1 & X = X2 &
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2;
SS: the InternalRel of R =
(the InternalRel of R1) /\ the InternalRel of R2 by A1,DefMeet;
sa: dom LAp R1 = bool the carrier of R1 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
sw: dom LAp R2 = bool the carrier of R2 by FUNCT_2:def 1;
aa: the carrier of R =
(the carrier of R1) /\ the carrier of R2 by A1,DefMeet;
reconsider XX1 = X as Subset of R1 by A1;
reconsider XX2 = X as Subset of R2 by A1;
reconsider XX = X as Subset of R;
LAp X1 \/ LAp X2 c= LAp X
proof
let x be object;
assume x in LAp X1 \/ LAp X2; then
per cases by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
S2: x in LAp X1;
LAp R1 cc= LAp R by aa,A1,Prop16L,SS,XBOOLE_1:17; then
(LAp R1).XX1 c= (LAp R).XX by sa,ALTCAT_2:def 1; then
(LAp R1).XX1 c= LAp XX by ROUGHS_2:def 10; then
LAp XX1 c= LAp XX by ROUGHS_2:def 10;
hence thesis by S2,A1;
end;
suppose
S2: x in LAp X2;
LAp R2 cc= LAp R by aa,Prop16L,A1,SS,XBOOLE_1:17; then
(LAp R2).XX2 c= (LAp R).XX by sw,ALTCAT_2:def 1; then
(LAp R2).XX2 c= LAp XX by ROUGHS_2:def 10; then
LAp XX2 c= LAp XX by ROUGHS_2:def 10;
hence thesis by S2,A1;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: Proposition 17
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
UAp R1 cc= UAp R2 holds
the InternalRel of R1 c= the InternalRel of R2 by Prop17A;
theorem :: Corollary 3
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
UAp R1 = UAp R2 holds
the InternalRel of R1 = the InternalRel of R2 by Corr3A;
theorem :: Theorem 5
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 holds
UAp R1 = UAp R2 iff
the InternalRel of R1 = the InternalRel of R2 by The5;
theorem :: Proposition 18
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
LAp R1 cc= LAp R2 holds
the InternalRel of R2 c= the InternalRel of R1 by Prop18;
theorem Corr4: :: Corollary 4
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
LAp R1 = LAp R2 holds
the InternalRel of R2 = the InternalRel of R1
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr;
assume
A1: the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 &
LAp R1 = LAp R2;
the InternalRel of R2 c= the InternalRel of R1 &
the InternalRel of R1 c= the InternalRel of R2 by Prop18,A1;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 10;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 6
for R1, R2 being non empty RelStr st
the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2 holds
LAp R1 = LAp R2 iff
the InternalRel of R1 = the InternalRel of R2
proof
let R1, R2 be non empty RelStr;
assume
A1: the carrier of R1 = the carrier of R2;
hence LAp R1 = LAp R2 implies
the InternalRel of R1 = the InternalRel of R2 by Corr4;
assume the InternalRel of R1 = the InternalRel of R2; then
A2: the RelStr of R1 = the RelStr of R2 by A1;
for x being Subset of R1 holds (LAp R1).x = (LAp R2).x
proof
let x be Subset of R1;
reconsider xx = x as Subset of R2 by A1;
(LAp R1).x = LAp x by ROUGHS_2:def 10
.= LAp xx by A2,Pom2
.= (LAp R2).x by ROUGHS_2:def 10;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by FUNCT_2:63,A1;
end;